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17th c. French salads
salad bars
wooden salad bowls
arugula & rocket
iceberg lettuce
lamb's lettuce
romaine lettuce
water cress
Caesar salad
candle salad
chef's salad
chicken salad
Chinese chicken
Cobb salad
cole slaw
fruit salad
iceberg wedge
kilt salad
macaroni salad
Mesclun salad
Oriental noodle salad
pasta salad
perfection salad
potato salad
taco salad
tossed salad
tuna salad
Waldorf salad
Watergate salad
Caesar dressing
French dressing
Green Goddess
Honey mustard
Roquefort dressing
Thousand Island

What is salad?
Food historians tell us salads (generally defined as mixed greens with dressing) were enjoyed by ancient Romans and Greeks. As time progressed, salads became more complicated. Recipes varied according to place and time. Dinner salads, as we know them today, were popular with Renaissance folks. Composed salads assembled with layers of ingredients were enjoyed in the 18th century. They were called
Salmagundi. Today they are called chef's salad.

Why do we call it salad?
The basis for the word salad is 'sal', meaning salt. This was chosen because in ancient times, salt was often an ingredient in the dressing. Notes here:

"Salad, a term derived from the Latin sal (salt), which yielded the form salata, 'salted things' such as the raw vegetables eaen in classical times with a dressing of oil, vinegar or salt. The word turns up in Old French as salade and then in late 14th century English as salad or sallet."
---Oxford Companion to Food, Alan Davidson [Oxford Univeristy Press:Oxford] 2nd edition, 2006 (p. 682)

"Etymologically, the key ingredient of salad, and the reason for its getting its name, is the dressing. The Romans were enthusiastic eaters of salads, many of their differing hardly at all from present-day ones--a simple selection of raw vegetables...--and they always used a dressing of some sort: oil, vinegar, and often brine. And hence the name salad, which comes from Vulgar Latin Herba salata, literally 'salted herb'."
---An A-Z of Food and Drink, John Ayto [Oxford University Press:Oxford] 2002 (p. 294)

Etymological notes & historic uses, Oxford English Dictionary:
[a. OF. salade (14th c.), a. Pr. salada = OIt. salata, Pg. salada (cf. It. insalata, Sp. ensalada): ta, f. *sal and cf. quot. 1687 s.v. SALADING. c1390 Forme of Cury (1780) 41 Salat. Take persel, sawge, garlec [etc.]..waische hem clene..and myng hem wel with rawe oile, lay on vyneger and salt, and serue it forth."

"Although the ancient Greeks and Romans did not use the world "salad," they enjoyed a variety of dishes with raw vegetables dressed with vinegar, oil, and herbs...The medical practitioners Hippocrates and Galen belived that raw vegetables easily slipped through the system and did not create obstructions for what followed, therefore they should be served first. Others reported that the vinegar in the dressing destroyed the taste of the wine, therefore they should be served last. This debate has continued ever since...With the fall of Rome, salads were less important in western Europe, although raw vegetables and fruit were eaten on fast days and as medicinal correctives...The term salade derived from the Vulgar Roman herba salata, literally 'salted herb'. It remained a feature of Byzantine cookery and reentered the European menu via medieval Spain and Renaissance Italy. At first "salad" referred to various kinds of greens pickled in vinegar or salt. The word salade later referred to fresh-cooked greens of raw vegetables prepared in the Roman manner."
---Encyclopedia of Food and Culture, Solomon H. Katz, editor and William Woys Weaver, associate editor [Charles Scribner's Sons:New York] 2003, Volume 3 (p. 224-5)
[NOTE: This book contains far more information than can be paraphrased here. Ask your librarian to help you find a copy.]

At the tail end of the 19th century (in the United States) the domestic science/home economics movement took hold. Proponnents of this new science were obsessed with control. They considered tossed plates of mixed greens "messy" and eschewed them in favor of "orderly presentations." Salad items were painstakenly separated, organized, and presented. Molded gelatin (Jell-O et al) salads proliferated because they offered maximum control.

"Salad greens, which did have to be served raw and crisp, demanded more complicated measures. The object of scientific salad making was to subdue the raw greens until they bore as little resemblance as possible to their natural state. If a plain green salad was called for, the experts tried to avoid simply letting a disorganized pile of leaves drop messily onto the plate...This arduous approach to salad making became an identifying feature of cooking-school cookery and the signature of a refined household...American salads traditionally had been a matter of fresh greens, chicken, or lobster, but during the decades at the turn of the century, when urban and suburban middle class was beginning to define itself, salads proliferated magnificently in number and variety until they incorporated nearly every kind of food except bread and pastry...Salads that were nothing but a heap of raw ingredients in dissaray plainly lacked cultivation, and the cooking experts developed a number of ingenious ways to wrap them up...The tidiest and most thorough way to package a salad was to mold in in gelatin."
---Perfection Salad: Women and Cooking at the Turn of the Century, Laura Shapiro [North Point Press:New York] 1986 (p. 96-99)

Culinary evidence confirms salads of all kinds were very popular in America in the 1920s. Entire books were devoted to the topic. Some of the more popular were:

Eventually, the hold of domestic science relaxed and tossed salads once again found their way on American tables. Tossed salads regained favor. Today, American salads range from the uninspired classic" lettuce wedge, tomato & cucumber doused with bottled dressing to tantalizing creations composed of interesting greens, asian fruits and vegetables, crisp noodles lightly tossed with sesame seed soy sauce. Lettuce-free salads (tomato and fresh mozzerlla) and exotic fruit combinations (kiwi, mango, strawberry) are found in upscale restaurants and suburban supermarket salad bars. Busy home cooks have the option of assembling "salad in a bag" adorned with ready-cut veggies (broccoli, cauliflower), baby carrots, tiny tomatoes, and packaged crunchies (flavored croutons, nuts, mini crackers, onion crisps). No cutting involved.

Candle salad
The ingredients and presentation of classic Candle Salad (aka Candlestick, Candlette, Night Cap) suggest it was a dish of the 1920s. That is when creative
fruit salads of all sorts were created and pineapples were actively promoted to American cooks. Our survey of historic newspapers confirms does not reveal any specific person/place/company credited for the "invention." If we had to guess? We'd say Dole, manufacturer of both pineapples and bananas, was the driving force behind this item. Think: Pineapple Upside Down Cake. Bananas were widley availble to American cooks from the 1880s forward. Coinicidentally, Maraschino cherries were also introduced in the 1920s.

Candle salad, a relatively simple and inexpensive combination, was generally promoted as a festive holiday dish for its unusual presentation. It was recommended for Christmas, Halloween and children's birthday parties. The earliest print reference we find for Candle Salad is dated 1916. It was presented in this socialite menu; no description or recipe included: "Fruit Cocktail, Chicken a la King, Mashed Potatoes, Buttered Peas, Rolls, Olives, Candle Salad, Cheese Straws, Fancy Cakes, Nut Ice Creams, Candies and Nuts, Coffee."---Oelwein Daily Register [IA] April 5, 1916 (p. 4)

By the end of the decade, Candle Salad was being promoted as a time-honored tradition on par with Santa and is reindeer. Print evidence fails to substantiate the claim. Notice how the recipes grow more complicated as the decade progresses.

"A decorative Christmas candle salad
is made by placing half of a small banana in the center of ring of pineapple. The light on the candle is represented by a piece of red cherry."
---"The How in Houses," Los Angeles Times, December 18, 1921 (p. VIII16)

"Candle Salad
(Six Portions)
(A clever salad to serve at a child's birthday party.)
Six pieces lettuce
Six slices pineapple
Three bananas
Six red cherries
Six strips green pepper
One-half cup mayonnaise
Arrange the lettuce leaves on salad plates. Place a slice of pineapple on each serving. Insert half a banana upright to represent the candle. Top with a red cherry and place some mayonnaise on the side to represent driping candle grease. Arrange the strips of green peppers on the sides of the pineapple to form handles to the candle stick."
---Bettina's Best Salads and What to Serve With Them, Louise Bennet Weaver and Helen Cowles LeCron [A.L. Burt Company:New York] 1923 (p. 49)

"Candlette Salad

This is very pretty to serve at a Hallowe'en party. To make it set a slice of canned pineapple on an individual salad plate. Break off a piece from one end of a slender short banana. Stick the unbroken end in the hole in the center of the pineapple slice, shaving off a little of the banana to make it stand secure. Pour some thick mayonnaise on top of and down one side of the banana to represent melted wax, and put a Maraschino cherry on top for the burning wick. Soak a strip of celery in hot water to make it pliable and make the handle of it, or use a strip of orange peel. Surround pineapple with tiny lettuce leaves or mayonnaise pressed through the pastry tube."
---Woman's World Book of Salads and Sandwiches [Woman's World Magazine:Chicago IL] 1924 (p. 40)

"Night Cap Candlestick

Lettuce, pineapple, banana, cherries, red peppers, whipped cream On a bed of shredded lettuce, place a slice of pineapple. Make the hole in pinepple larger with a column cutter and insert half of a banana. On top of banana place a whole maraschino cherry (split) to represent flame. Make a handle for candle holder out of strip of Spanish red pepper, insterting one end of pepper into a slit made near center of pineapple and curl the other end of pepper underneath slice or pineapple. Banana should be placed in lemon or orange juice to prevent dsicoloration, and inserted in pineapple just before serving. French dressing. Dots of whipped cream or creamed mayonnaise can be placed on banana to represent the dripping wax."
---The Edgewater Beach Hotel Salad Book, Arnold Shircliffe [Hotel Monthly Press:Evanston IL] 1926 (p. 140)

"Candlestick Salad, Individual

1 slice canned pineapple
1/2 banana, cut crosswise
Shredded coconut
Strip green pepper
Maraschino cherry
Fruit salad dressing
For the base of the candlestick, place the slice of pineapple on a leaf of lettuce and surround with fruit salad dressing piped through a pastry tube. For the candlestick, point the cut end of the banana half and place it in an upright position in the cavity of the pineapple slice. In the side of the banana stick the strip of green pepper to simulate the handle. On the top of the banana place the maraschino cherry or a strawberry, keeping it in position with a toothpick. Stick a piece of shredded coconut in the cherry for a wick. Serve additional salad dressing in tiny bonbon dishes at each plate. Serves. 1."
---Good Housekeeping's Book of Good Meals, Good Housekeeping Institute, Katharine A. Fisher, director [Good Housekeeping:New York] 1927 (p. 165)

"Probably millions of recipes are invented each year. Most of them are used only by the composer and few friends or neighbors, others manage to creep into recipe and cook books and live for a number of years, but here and there a recipe is composed that seems to live forever. The old Christmas Candle Salad has been so popular for so many generations that at this time of year it is as much entitled to appear in print once more as is the story of Santa and his famous reindeer.

"A crisp leaf of lettuce is placed upon a salad plate; a thick slice of seedless orange tops it; a peeled banana cut in two horizontally, is placed upon the center of the orange slice; a maraschino cherry or some other red tasty tops the banana--and there you have the principal ingredients. The orange slice is the candlestick, the banana the candle, and the cherry the flame. A mound of red jelly at the base of the candle and a suitable thick dressing (flavored whipped cream is delicious) poured over the banana at the last minute to represent the flowing wax--and the never-dying Christmas candle salad is again ready for the Christmas meal."
---"A Christmas Candle Salad," Philadelphia Tribune, December 20, 1928 (p. 5)

Chef's salad
Food historians can't quite agree on the history and composition of chef's salad much less who assembled the first one. Some trace this salad's roots to
Salmagundi, a popular meat and salad dish originating in 17th century England and popular in colonial America. Others contend chef's salad is a product of early twentieth century, originating in either New York or California. The Brown Derby's popular Cobb Salad might have provided inspiration. The person most often connected with the history of this salad is Louis Diat, chef of the Ritz Carleton in New York City during the 1940s. While the food historians acknowledge his recipe they do not appear to be convinced he originated the dish. Here are some of the popular theories:

"The evolution of Chef's Salad What chef dreamed up this salad? Food historian Evan Jones says in his headnote to Chef's Salad recipe in American Food: The Gastronomic Story (1975): "The origin of this salad is not, apparently, a matter of record, but it may have been made first in the kitchen of the Ritz-Carleton where a recipe used by Louis Diat called for smoked ox tongue as one of the meats and watercress as the only green leaf." Louis Diat includes this recipe in Cooking a la Ritz (1941):

'Chef's salad. Place separately in a salad bowl equal amounts of chopped lettuce (place on the bottom of the bowl), boiled chicken, smoked ox tongue and smoked ham, all cut in julienne style. Add 1/2 hard-cooked egg for each portion. Place some watercress in the center and serve with French Dressing.'
A year earlier, Edith Barber, food editor of the New York Sun offered...[a recipe for] Chef's Salad in Edith Barber's Cook Book (1940). Her recipe differs significantly from Chef Louis's and like him, she doesn't say where she obtained the recipe. The original Chef's Salad was..."diet fare," which lends credence to Mariani's theory that it comes from California...Over time chef's salads became fancier, weightier..."
---American Century Cookbook: The Most Popular Recipes of the 20th Century, Jean Anderson [Clarkson Potter:New York] 1997 (p. 270-271)

"The chef's salad is a familiar yet fading star in the salad world...this still-beloved salad may have had a noble beginning. Though nobody has ever stepped forward to claim the title of the chef in 'chef's salad,' the dish has been attributed by some food historians to Louis Diat, the chef of the Ritz-Carton in New York City in the early 1940s...The concept of the chef's salad dates still earlier; one seventeenth-century English recipe for a 'grand sallet' calls for lettuce, roast meat, and a slew of vegetables and fruits."
---One-Dish Dinners: A New Chef's Salad, Gourmet, August 1999 (p. 100).

A dish composed of chopped meat, anchovies, eggs, onions with oil and condiments."
---Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition, Volume XIV (p. 399)
[1674: Blount...a dish of meat made of cold Turkey and other ingredients.]

"Salmagundi. a term dating back from the 17th century...In writing about salads of the 17th century, C. Anne Wilson (1973) explains the term thus: 'Sometimes an egg and herb salad was further enhanced by the addition of cold roast capon, anchovies and other meat or fish delicacies. Late in the 17th century the name of salmagundi was applied to mixtures of this type, and was subsequently corrupted to Solomon Gundy.' Hannah Glasse (1747) has three recipes for Salamongundy, but sums up the essence of this dish at the end of the third recipe: 'but you may always make a Salamagundy of such things as you have, according to your Fancy.'"
---Oxford Companion to Food, Alan Davidson [Oxford University Press:Oxford] 1999 (p. 684-5)
[NOTE: Mrs. Glasse's original
Salmagundi & modernized version, courtesy of Food History News/Sandra L. Oliver

The famous 1926 Edgewater Beach Hotel Salad Book, Arnold Shircliffe (we have a 1955 12th printing copy) contains a salad recipe titled "Chef's Special." (p. 43) It is a far cry from what we know today as chef's salad. It is composed of romaine, endive, grapefruit, pineapple, olives, cream cheese, pimentoes. This book also contains a recipe for Salmagundi (p. 170). Ingredients are lettuce, cabbage, anchovies, chicken, hard-boiled egg yolks, parlsey, green beans. The earliest recipe we have titled "Chef's Salad" in an American cookbook was published in 1936.

"Chef Salad.

Rub a salad bowl with:
Place in it tender:
Lettuce leaves
Add to them:
Pitted ripe olives
Sliced radishes
Peeled and quartered tomatoes
Sliced hard-cooked eggs
Shredded Swiss cheese
Peel, slice and add:
3 hard-cooked eggs
Drain and chop:
6 or 8 anchovies
Peel, slice and add:
2 tomatoes
Moisten the salad with:
French dressing
Toss it in the bowl. Serve it at once."
---The Joy of Cooking, Irma S. Rombauer [Boggs-Merrill Company:Indianapolis IN] 1936 (p. 266)
[NOTE: This recipe is not included in the first edition of Joy, circa 1931.]

"Chef's Salad

1 bunches endive
2 small bunches water cress
1 head lettuce
2 small stalks celery
10 anchovies
3 tomatoes, peeled
3 hard-cooked eggs
Cut salad greens into pieces, and place in mixing bowl. Arrange anchovies and quarters of tomato and egg over top. Serve with Chef's Salad Dressing."
---My New Better Homes & Gardens Cook Book, revised edition, [Meredith Publishing:Des Moines IA] 1937 (p. 6)

"Chef's Salad Dressing
1 small package Roquefort cheese
1 teaspoon anchovy paste
1/8 teaspoon A-1 sauce
Juice 1/2 lemon
1/2 cup olive oil
2 tablespoons vinegar
1/2 clove garlic, minced
Salt and pepper to taste.
Crumble cheese with fork. Add other ingredients and mix thoroly. Pour over salad of greens and toss with a fork. Chill before serving. (Makes 3/4 cup)"
---ibid (p. 14)

"Cliff Edwards' Chef's Salad

You'd have to see Cliff Edwards ordering the ingredients for his Chef's Salad in his favorite restaurants and combining them at the table to realize how easily and quickly it can be mixed.
2 lettuce hearts
2 celery hearts
1 small bunch watercress
1 small bunch chicory
1 cup baked diced ham
3 tomatoes, quartered.
1. Tear hearts of lettuce into good-sized pieces.
2. Chop together with hearts of celery, watercress, and chicory. Mix with ham.
3. Add tomatoes to this. Serve with the following French dressing:
1 clove garlic
juice of one lemon
1/2 cup Italian olive oil
2 tablespoons chopped parsley
3 hard-cooked eggs
1. Rub salad bowl with garlic. Add lemon juice and olive oil.
2. Beat for a few minutes with an egg beater. After the dressing has thickened slightly, add vegetables and ham. Mix thoroughly.
3. Garnish with parlsey and eggs. Serve at table from bowl.
Serves 4 to 6.
Note: This will serve 6 persons with a dinner course; 4 persons, if served as main luncheon course."
---Prudence Penny's Cookbook, Prudence Penny, Home Economics Editor of the Los Angles Examiner [Prencie-Hall:New York] 1939 (p. 350)

"Chef's Salad

Place separately in a salad bowl equal amounts of chopped lettuce (placed on the bottom of the bowl), boiled chicken, smoked ox tongue and smoked ham, cut in julienne style. Add 1/2 hard-boiled egg for each portion. Place some water cress in the center and serve with French Dressing."
---Cooking a la Ritz, Louis Diat [J.B. Lippincott:New York] 1941 (p. 31)

About French dressing

What is the differernce between Chef's Salad and Cobb Salad?
"Cobb Salad" is a singnature dish *invented* at the Brown Derby Restaurant (Los Angeles, California) by the owner, Bob Cobb. There is one specific recipe. "Chef Salad" is a generic recipe for a modern composed salad. There are many variations. The best way to examine the difference between these two dishes are checking recipes for both published in the same book. What better example than the Brown Derby's own cookbook?

"Cobb Salad, serves 4-6
1/2 head of lettuce
1/2 bunch watercress
1 small bunch chicory
1/2 head romaine
2 medium-sized tomatoes, peeled
2 breasts of boiled roasting chicken
6 strips crisp bacon
1 avocado
2 hard-cooked eggs
2 tbs. chopped chives
1/2 cup fine grated imported Roquefort cheese
1 cup Brown Derby Old-Fashioned French Dressing
Cut finely lettuce, watercress, chicory, and romaine and arrange in salad bowl. Cut tomatoes in half, remove seeds, dice finely, and arrange in a strip across the salad. Dice breasts of chicken and arrange over top of chopped greens. Chop bacon finely and sprinkle over the salad. Cut avocado in small pieces and arrange around the edge of the salad. Decorate the salad by sprinkling over the top the chopped eggs, chopped chives, and grated cheese. Just before serving mix the salad throughouly with French Dressing."
---The Brown Derby Cookook [Doubleday & Company:New York] 1949 (p. 22)

"Derby Chef Salad, serves 2
4 cups mixed greens (lettuce, romaine, chiclory, watercress)
1/2 cup diced celery
1/2 cup diced baked ham
1 hard-cooked egg, chopped fine
1 tbs. finely chopped parsley
1 1/2 tomato, cut in quarters
1/2 cup Derby Old-fashioned French Dressing
Toss mixed greens in a medium-sized, ice cold salad bowl. On top of them sprinkle celery, ham, egg, parsley. On sides of bowl lay quartered tomatoes. Serve in the bowl with French Dressing."
---ibid, (p. 56)

"Brown Derby Old-Fashioned French Dressing, 1 1/2 qts.
This is the French Dressing which became so popular among the stars that the Brown Derby was prevailed upon to bottle it for home use. The cup of water is optional, depending opon the degree of oiliness desired in this dressing
1 cup water
1 cup red wine vinegar
1 tsp. sugar
Juice of 1/2 lemon
2 1/2 tbs. salt
1 tbs. ground black pepper
1 tbs. Worcestershire sauce
1 tsp. English mustard
1 bead garlic, chopped
1 cup olive oil
3 cups salad oil
Blend together all ingredients except oils. The add olive and salad oils and mix well again. Chill. Shake before serving. This dressing keeps well in the refrigerator. Can be made and stored in a 2 qt. Mason jar."
---ibid, (p. 68-69)

Chicken salad
Culinary evidence (old cookbooks, menus etc.) confirms minced cooked meat and mayonnaise-type salads were popular in America from colonial times present. These were culinary traditions brought to our shores by European (especially German) settlers. Primary evidence suggests early 19th century meat salads were composed as primary dishes, not a thrifty mode for repurposing leftovers. Of course, cookbooks only tell part of the story. Thrifty cooks have been repurosing leftovers from ancient times forwards. Lobster, chicken, ham, and mutton salads were popular in the mid-late 19th century. This correlates with the aggressive promotion of household meat choppers. Coincidence? Probably not. Twentieth century
tuna salad descends from this culinary tradition.

Vintage American recipe sampler

"Chicken Salad.

The fowls for this purpose should be young and fine. You may either boil or roast them. They must be quite cold. Having removed all the skin and fat, and disjointed the fowls cut the meat from the bones into very small pieces, not exceeding an inch. Wash and split two large fine heads of celery, and cut the white part into pieces also about an inch long; and having mixed the chicken and celery together, put them into a deep china dish, cover it and set it away. It is best not to prepare the dressing till just before the salad is to be eaten, that it may be as fresh as possible. Have ready the yolks of eight hard-boiled eggs. Put them into a flat dish, and mash them to a paste with the back of a wooden spooon. Add to the egg a small tea-spoonful of fine salt, the same quantity of cayenne pepper, half a gill of made mustard, a gill or a wine-glass and a half of vinegar, and rather more than two wine-glasses of sweet oil. Mix all these ingredients thoroughly; stirring them a long time till they are quite smooth. The dressing should not be put on till a few minutes before the salad is sent in; as by lying in it the chicken and celery will become tough and hard. After you pour it on, mix the whole well together with a silver fork. Chicken salad should be accompanied with plates of bread and butter, and a plate of crackers. It is a supper dish, and is brought in with terrapin, oysters, &tc. Cold turkey is excellent prepared as above. An inferior salad may be made with cold fillet of veal, instead of chickens. Cold boiled lobster is very fine cut up and drest in this manner, only substituting fore celery, lettuce cut up and mixed with the lobster."
---Directions for Cookery in Its Various Branches, Miss [Eliza] Leslie [Carey & Hart:Philadelphia] (p. 147-8)

"No. 90.--Turkey Salad.

Cut some of the meat from a cold boiled or braised turkey in small pieces, and put them into a deep dish with four table-spoonfuls of good salad oil, and one and a half of vinegar, a small onion, a shallot, some parsley, green tarragon, and chervil, all chopped fine, and salt and pepper. Let the pieces of turkey soak in this for four hours, turning them occasionally, and covering the dish closely. Then put some well-dried and shred lettuce on a dish, take the pieces of turkey from the oil and vinegar, and arrange them in the centre of the lettuce. Take two raw yolks of eggs, beat them a little in a basin, and add by slow degrees the oil, vinegar, chopped herbs, etc., from which you have taken the turkey, stirring all the time till the sauce is quite smooth; taste it, and, if necessary, add more salt or pepper; pour this sauce over the turkey and salad; arrange round the edge, or in a pattern in the centre, as you like best, olives and slices of hard-boiled eggs alternately, and serve."
---What to Do with the Cold Mutton [Bunce and Huntington:New York] 1865. (p. 57)

"Chicken Salad.
A pair of fowl weighing about six pounds will make a nice dish of salad. The chickens should be well boiled. Take off all the skin (some persons do not use the dark meat; it is quite as tender as the white, and when dressed, does not show the difference); chop the meat very fine (be sure to take out good heads of tennis-ball lettuce into quarters; wash it all clean, and lay it in ice-water for two or three hours, that it may be crisp). If celery is used, split it fine, and put into ice-water as long as you would the lettuce, as it must be brittle to be good."
---Mrs. Putnam's Receipt Book [Sheldon and Company:New York] (p. 240)

"Chicken salad. Made by not chopping or cutting the chicken, is very nice. Either boiled or roast chicken may be skinned, then pull the meat off the bone in small pieces, and dress it the same as the other chicken salad. The chicken myst be cooked very tender to pull off in nice pieces. For evening company it is best to cut the lettuce or celery, and mix with the meat or lobster, and serve it in a salad bowl." (Ibid, p. 124)

Chicken Salad

Buckeye Cookery, Estelle Woods Wilcox

Chicken Salad I & II

The Boston Cooking School Cook Book, Mrs. D.A. Lincoln

"Chicken Salad

Draw, singe, and boil the chicken. When done and perfectly cold, remove the skin and cut the meat into dice. If you want it very nice, use only the white meat; save the dark for croquettes. After you have cut it, set it away in a cold place until wanted. Wash and cut the white parts of celery into pieces abut a half inch long, throw them into a bowl of cold water, and also set them until wanted. To every pint of chicken allow two thirds of a pint of celery and a cup and a half of mayonnaise dressing. When ready to serve, dry the celery and mix with the chicken; dust lightly with salt, white pepper or cayenne, then mix it with the mayonnaise. Serve on a a cold dish, garnished with white celery tips. One cup of white cream may be added to every one-half pint of mayonnaise when ready to use it. It makes the dressing lighter, with less of the oily flavor."
---The American Pure Food Cook Book, David Chidow [Geo. M. Hill Company:Chicago] 1899 (p. 133)

"What to do with left-over poultry. Chicken Salad.

Cut the cold chicken from the bones, using all the small bits. Have pieces uniform in size, and in shape of small cubes. Scrape celery and let stand several hours in ice-water, then dry in a clean napkin. Use half as much celery as chicken, and cut into pieces half the size. Make a French Dressing of
1 tablespoonful lemon juice
3 tablespoonfuls oil
1/4 teaspoonful salt
1/8 teaspoonful white pepper
Pour this over the chicken and celery,mix well, and put into ice-box to stand for fifteen minutes. Drain the liquid from some canned sweet red peppers, and chop with stoned olives. Mix with the salad, and just before it is served pour mayonnaise dressing over it, tossing it over and over with a silver fork until each piece is coated with the dressing. Put into a salad bowl, or on individual plates, and garnish with small tender ends and leaves of the celery, whole olives, and a few tiny cucumber pickles. Serve very cold."
---Cook Book of Left-Overs, Helen Carroll Clarke [Harper & Brothers:New York] (p. 53)

"Chicken Salad (1)

(The old way of making it)
2 large chickens, boiled
6 hard-boiled eggs
4 uncooked egg-yolks
4 tablespoonfuls lemon juice
1/4 teaspoonful cayenne pepper
6 stalks celery
2 teaspoonfuls mustard
1 teaspoonful salt
4 tablespoonfuls vinegar
6 tablespoonfuls milk
1 pint bottle olive oil
Chop the chicken, white and dark meat, not too fine, being careful to remove every bit of skin and not to use hard or gristly parts. parts. Cut up the celery and chop the hard-boiled eggs, salt and pepper to taste. Make a dressing of the rest of the ingredients by mixing the egg yolks, mustard, salt and pepper together until smooth and thick, drop in the oil a little at a time, then add vinegar, lemon juice and lastly, milk. Just before you are ready to serve mix all the ingredients together and mix with the dressing."

"Chicken Salad (2)
Chicken salad may be made from roast or boiled chicken--roast chicken retains more of the chicken flavor, but boiled chicken has a more delicate flavor.
1 cup tender white celery
2 cups cold chicken, chopped
1 hard-boiled egg
1/2 cup mayonnaise
1 teaspoonful vinegar
2 tablespoons sweet sour pickle
1 teaspoonful celery seed
Tiny pinch mustard
Salt and pepper
Do not cut the chicken meat too small and be sure that no skin is left. Only tender meat should be used by a little dark meat adds to the flavor. Cut the celery in small pieces, being careful to remove any hard bits. Chop up the white of the egg, blend the yolk with the vinegar and stir into the mayonnaise. Chop up the pickle; cucumbers are best to use. When you are ready to serve the salad mix all the ingredients and serve on delicate leaves of lettuce."
---Old Southern Recipes, Mary D. Pretlow [Robert M. McBride & Company:New York] 1930 (p. 177-178)

"Chicken Salad

1 hen, baked until very tender, chopped
1 apple, chopped
1 bunch celery, chopped
8 hard-boiled eggs, chopped
1 pint salad dressing
Home cooked dressing as follows:
1 cup vinegar
butter size of walnut
1 teaspoon dry mustard
dash red pepper
2 tablespoons sugar
2 eggs
salt and pepper to taste
nut meats, if desired
Bring vinegar, sugar and butter to a boil. Pour over the well-beaten eggs. Add mustard, salt, pepper, and dash of red pepper; then put this back on the stove and cook slowly, stirring constantly, until mixture thickens. When cool, add most of this cooked dressing to the above ingredients and season well with salt and pepper. Nuts may be added, if desired. Serves 12-15.-Mrs. Ben C. Worlkman, Laurens County."<
---The South Carolina Cook Book, collected and edited by the South Carolina Extension Homemaker Council and the Clemsen Extension Home Economics staff, revised edition [University of South Carolina Press:Columbia SC] 1954 (p. 268)

"Chicken Salad
(Serves 4)
2 1/2 cups of cubed cold chicken
1 cup of chopped celery
Mauonnaise to taste
Cut the cold cooked chiken in even cubes, being careful to remove all gristle, fat skin and bone. You need pure, lean meat for salad. Combine 2 1/2 cups of the cubed meat with 1 cup of chopped raw celery and blend with mayonnaise to taste. Pile on a bed of romaine or Boston lettuce and garnish with any or all of the following: tomato quarters, slcied hard-cooked egg, capers, pimiento strips, stuffed olives.

With nuts: Add 1/2 cup of chopped, toasted almonds, walnuts, filberts or pecans.
With green onion: Add 1/2 cup of chopped green onion."
---James Beard Cook book, James Beard [E.P. Dutton:New York] 1961 (p. 385) [NOTE: Mr. Beard also offers recipes for turkey salad, veal salad, lamb salad, beef salad and ham salad.]

Chinese chicken salad
According to American food historian Sylvia Lovegren, Chinese ingredient-inspired salad/dressing originated in the 1930s. Our survey confirms several 1930s mainstream America recipes titled "Chinese Chicken Salad." They are a far cry from what Anerican diners expect today. Our Chinese food history sources confirm raw salads were not tradtional fare in Asia. So unfolds another delicious page in Chinese-American cuisine.

"Salad made with uncooked vegetables was not consumed in traditional China, for raw salads were dangerous and had little appeal to most Chinese; instead, Chinese salads were customarily made of parboiled or stir-fried vegetables and served with hot or cold."
---Food in China: A Cultural and Historial Inquiry, Frederick J. Simoons [CRC Press:Boca Raton FL] 1991 (p. 148)

"There are many different types of cold chicken salad in China, although most of them seem to originate in Szechwan. One of the most popular is pong pong (or bong bong) chicken, which is basically shredded chicken and bean sprouts dressed with a peanut butter, red pepper, and garlic sauce. But the Chinese chicken salad that was being consumed in such quantities by the fashionable set--probably among rising young record and film producers on the West Coast--probably orginated in California. This version is a cold mixture of shredded iceberg lettuce, crispy fried noodles, the strips of roasted chicken, all tossed with a slightly sweet sesame oil--tinged dressing made sprightly with flecks of hot red peppers. There is a similar chicken salad, known as so see chicken, made popular at Johnny Kan's restaurant in San Francisco, but Kan's version omits the fried noodles."
---"Exotic Interlude I," Fashionable Food: Seven Decades of Food Fads, Sylvia Lovegren [MacMillan:New York] 1995 (p. 109-110)
Who was
Johnny Kan?

Predictably, our early 20th century salad cookbooks [1900-1950s] offer several recipes for various "Oriental" Salads. The surprise? None of these recipes are similar to the menu items we expect today. Neither did these books offer anything close to contemporary Asian/Oriental-style (sesame soy ginger) salad dressing. One recipe circa 1923 consisted of diced prunes, dates, figs, chopped nuts, diced pineapple topped with "One cup salad dressing." These salads were generally topped with Vinaigrette or spiced mayonnaises. None of the examples we found included sesame, or ginger. Some did employ soy sauce. Our survey of American newspapers confirms Chinese Chicken Salads were indeed popular in the 1930s. As one might expect, there were several variations for both salad and dressing. Asian salads/dressings, as we know them today, first surfaced in the mid-1960s. Articles confirm the popularity and diversity of this salad/dressing grew in subsequent decades. Asian-style salad dressings were promoted in the 1980s as healthier alternatives to traditional selections. Thai flavors are introduced in the 1990s. Today there are many variations on this ubiquitious recipe.

A survey of Chinese Chicken Salad recipes through time

"Chinese Chicken Salad

Probably one of the most popular company luncheon salads in is the chicken salad. There is a standard recipe for it and to that one recipe most people cling. Here is a grand new one that really deserves a chance at your next luncheon, accompanied by clear soup, and chocolate ice cream, cake and tea. What better menu could you ask:

1 cup almonds
2 tablespoons gelatine
1/4 cup cold water
1 3/4 cup boiling chicken stock
1 cup pineapple juice
1/2 teaspoon paprika
2 1/2 cups finely cut boiled chicken
Chili sauce
Whipped cream
Salt to taste
Blanch the almonds, then place them in a hot oven until they are quite brown. Shred very fine. Soften the gelatine in the cold water, add the boiling stock and stir until gelatine is dissolved. Add the pineapple juice and strain through a fine sieve. Add salt to taste and paprika. Arrange the chicken, pineapple and almonds in a mold; add the chilled liquid and place in coldest part of refrigerator to set. Unmold on a large platter garnished with lettuce or chicory and serve with it a dressing of whipped cream, to which a little chili sauce and horseradish have been added. This makes eight to ten servings"
---"Chinese Chicken Salad," Frederick News Post [MD], June 12, 1936 (p. 9)
[NOTE: compare with this recipe c. 1931: "Chicken, Pineapple and Almond Salad. Dissolve 1 level tablespoon gelatine in 1/4 cup cold water. Place cup in hot water until dissolved. Beat gelatine into 1 cup of mayonnaise. Add 2 cups of whipped cream, 1 1/2 cups diced chicken, 3/4 cup chopped blanched almonds, 3/4 cup chopped pineapple, 3/4 cup of chopped celery Aalt to taste. Put into ring mould or individual moulds. Serve with a small quantity of mayonnaise thinned with cream.--Mrs. Warren E. Libby."---Fashions in Beverly Hills, Beverly Hills Womans Club [Beverly Hills Citizen:Beverly Hills] 1931 (p. 41)

"Chinese Chicken Salad

Dice three cups cold cooked chicken. Boil one-half pound of bean sprouts and drain in cold water. Chop fine two stalks celery. Season with sald and pepper and French dressing. Chill. Serve with mayonnaise flavored with soy sauce."
---"Oriental Dishes Easy to Prepare," Lona Gilbert, Los Angeles Times, December 7, 1938 (p. A9)

"Chinese Chicken Salad

Toasted buttered cracker or corn muffins, fresh peach slices on gingerbread quare and coffe ging the meal to a tasty finish. Combine 2 cups each diced cooked chicken and bean sprouts, 1 cup each pineapple chunks and chopped cucumber, and 2/3 cup shredded almonds; chill. Just before serving, add sufficient mayonnaise to moisten and season to taste with sald and lemon juice. Toss lightly 10 minutes. Serve on Chinese fried noodles for a crisp, nut-crunchy flavor. Serves 6."
---"Make the Salad, Make the Meal," Los Angeles Times, July 16, 1947 (p. 6)

"Chinese Chicken Salad

2 tablespoons unflavored gelatin
1/4 cup cold water
1 1/2 cups boiling chicken stock (can be made wiht chicken bouillon cubes)
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/4 teaspoon paprika
2 1/2 cups minced cooked chicken or use caned boned chicken
1 1/2 cup drained pineapple
1 cup shredded, toasted almonds
Lettuce or endive
Mustard cream mayonnaise
METHOD: Soften gelatin in cold water five minutes; dissolve over hot water. Add to boiling chicken stock; seasonings and pineapple juice. Chill. When slightly thickened, fold in chicken, pineapple and almonds. Turn into large rinsed mold; chill until firm. Unmold on large platter, garnish with lettuce or endive and serve with mayonnaise. Makes eight servings. Accompany with baking powder biscuits and orange marmalade."
---"Marian Manners: Wealth of Menu Ideas Lightens Strain on Luncheon Hostess," Roxie Howlett, Los Angeles Times, January 29, 1954 (p. B4)

"Chinese Chicken Sesame Salad

3 lb. chicken breasts
2 tablespoons oil, butter or margarine
2 teaspoons sesame seed
1 tablespoon soy sauce
1/2 cup chopped parsley
1/2 teaspoon salt
1 medium-size head lettuce, shredded
Renmove bones and skin from uncooked chicken, using sharp knife. Cut meat into thin strips. Saute chicken and sesame seed in oil or butter until golden brown, adding more oil or butter, if needed. Stir in soy sauce, parsley and salt. Pour over well-chilled shredded lettuce and toss lightly. Makes six servings."
---"Simple and Satisfying Salads form Around the World," Marian Manners, Los Angeles Times, May 4, 1961 (p. A1)

"Chinese Chicken Salad

Arthur Wong...popular proprietor of the Far East Terrace in North Hollywood (and part-time actor), had a few of us up to his beautiful hillside Oriental house for dinner recently. Among other delicacies, which he prepared himself, he served Sai Soo Gai (Chinese Chicken Salad). I demanded the recipe. And here it is (for 4): 1/2 lb. of white chicken meat, cooked and shredded; 2 oz. Sai Fon (bean thread) deep fried until light brown; 1 small head of lettuce, shredded; 4 strands green onions, shredded; 2 tablespoons of chopped toasted almonds; 2 tablespoons of chopped toasted almonds; 2 tablespoons of toasted sesame seeds; 2 tablespoons of sugar; 1 level teaspoon of salt; 1 level teaspoon of monosoduium glutamate; 1/2 teaspoon of black pepper; 1/4 cup of salad oil, and 3 tablespoons of vinegar. Combine ingredients and mix--just before serving. Delicious. (Now, all you have to do is try to find those ingredients in YOUR cupboard.)."
---"Round About," Los Angeles Times,, June 30, 1963 (p. B28)

"Mrs. Fayne Lutz of Taos, N.M. won the grand prize of $10,000 at the National Chicken Contest for her recipe for Hot Chinese Chicken Salad.

"Hot Chinese Chicken Salad
8 broiler-fryer chicken thighs, skinned, oned, cut into 1-inch chunks
1/2 cup corn starch
1/4 cup Mazola corn oil
1/4 teaspoon garlic powder
1 bunch green onions, coarsly chopped
1 large ripe tomato, cut into chunks
1 can (4 ounces) water chestnuts, drained, sliced
1 can (4 ounces) sliced mushrooms, drained
1 cup slant sliced celery
1 teaspoon Ac'cent flavor enhancer
1/2 cup soy sauce
2 cups finely chredded iceberg lettuce
Roll chicken in corn starch. Heat corn oil in fry pan or wok over high heat. Add chicken chunks and quickly brown. Sprinkle with garlic powder. Add tomato, water chestnuts, mushrooms, onion, and celery. Stir. Sprinkle with flavor enhancer. Add soy sauce. Stir. Cover, reduce heat to simmer and cook 5 minutes. Lightly toss chicken-vegetable mix with lettuce. Serve hot with rice. Makes 4 servings."
---"Prize Winning Chicken Salad," Phyllis Hanes, The Times [San Mateo CA], August 20, 1974 (p. 12)

"Combine a taste of Chinese food and a taste for salads and it's inevitable that anyone who fancies both will eventually come across the dish known as Chinese chicken salad. But one Chinese chicken salad can be as different from another Chinese chicken salad as a pair of fraternal twins. This possibly could be because salads as the Western world knows them definately are not part of the overall Chinese cuisine. Raw vegetables, simply don't play an important role in the meals of the Chinese. So where did the first Chinese chicken salad appear? Who knows? It's likely, however, that today's many versions of Chinese chicken salad stem from any number of cold shredded-chicken dishes that are indeed very much a part of Chinese cuisine. Whatever the origin, Chinese chicken salad is a popular menu item at numerous Chinese and non-Chinese restaurants. Some chefs depend on chow mein noodles or rice sticks to provide a bit of crunchy texture in their salads, while other simply rely on a variety of tender vegetables for a crispy touch. One thing hey have in common is that nearly all of these wonderful salads call for soy sauce, sesame oil or seeds, ginger and other typical Chinese flavorings. Only a few of the most popualr versions call for exotic ingredients sude as dried bean curd and black fungus. Whether these sometimes hot, sometimes cold dishes are true salads or not really doesn't matter. They taste wonderful and that's all, really, that's important. A recent taste test on some of the chicken-salad recipes that have found a home in The Times recipe files pointed out the wonderufl creativity possible when one chooses Chinese flavorings to satisfy a craving for chicken salad. The spicy sweetness of hoisin sauce, for instance, turned the slaad form the Jade West restaurant into an excellent light luncheon choice, while the salad from Le Grand Buffet with its accent on crisp vegetables and delicate Sherry dressing would fill the bill nicely as a separate course or side-dish salad.

"Chinese Chicken Salad Le Grand Buffet
4 whole chicken breasts
1 1/2 cups chicken broth
1 bunch green onions, sliced diagonally
1 cup water chestnuts, sliced
1 cup sesame seeds, toasted lightly
1 pound Chinese pea pods, trimmed and slcied julienne
Dijon Sherry Dressing
Salt, pepper
Poach chicken breasts in chicken broth over medium heat 20 minutes, or until done. Let cook in broth. Remove from broth, remove skin from breasts and cut meat into 1/4-inch slices. Crisp breen onions in iced water in bowl. Mix chicken, water chestnuts, sesame seeds, pea pods and green onions in large bowl. Toss with as much Dijon Sherry Dressing as desired. Season to taste with salt and pepper. Makes 8 servings."
---"Chinese Chicken Salad: The Meeting of East and West," Betsat Balsle, Los Angeles Times, May 29, 1980 (p. J1)

"Chinese chicken salad, an umbrella organization of a dish liberally sprinkled on menus ranging from Applebee's and Fresh Choice to the corner Sichuan restaurant...At the extreme Yankee end of the spectrum, there's the Oriental chicken salad, a recipe so far removed from its country of origin it never got the memo that we don't call it the Orient anymore. Heinous contributions to this version that I've encountered include yogurt, pineapple chunks, ham, cheese, and even cornflakes, draped with a dressing that throws together (in part or whole) honey, orange juice, mayonnaise, cider vinegar, and Dijon mustard. Less egregiously Western (though still high on the cultural embarrassment scale) is a rendition I recently had -- believe it or not -- at California Crisp in Stonestown Mall. Here, romaine lettuce was combined with chunks of chicken and tossed with crispy noodle bits, bean sprouts, water chestnuts, and slivered almonds in a tangy-sweet vinaigrette. And at the opposite end of the spectrum is ...cold chicken noodle salad. Blessedly, the menu simply lists this sublime dish as "cold noodle salad." ...To be fair, other than being chilled, this dish is about as close to an Applebee's Chinese chicken salad as clam chowder is to bouillabaisse. For one thing, it actually has origins in China, though it's no doubt been dumbed down a bit for American tastes. For another, no actual lettuce is used in the making of this salad. It begins with cold linguine-width rice-flour noodles, on which are piled hand-shredded roast chicken, scallions, and cucumber slivers sprinkled with crushed peanuts. The whole thing is tossed in a dressing -- really more of a sauce -- that combines sesame oil, peanut butter, chicken broth, ginger, garlic, red chili, and rice vinegar in a wonderfully light and tangy blend that's spicy enough to make you sweat and cold enough to keep you from overheating."
---"Doing Chicken Right:How to avoid glorified Americanese dressed up as ethnic kweezeen," Bonnie Wach, SF Weekly (California), March 24, 2004 section: Dining/Food

French dressing & Vinaigrette
In France, oil & vinegar dressings are called vinaigrette. The term "French dressing" (used to denote vinaigrette and its many variations) became popular in Britain and America in the late 19th century. The
tomato-based French dressing we Americans currently purchase in grocery stores probably also began in the twentieth century.

Why two names for the same dressing?
"Vinaigrette...The word, which originated as a diminutive form of French vinaigre (vinegar), was first used in English as long ago as 1699 (John Evely mentioned it in his book on salads, Acetaria) but it did not really become established until the end of the nineteenth century. French dressing, which originated around 1900, is a widely used synonym in British English. In French, vinaigrette was also applied formerly to a sort of small two-wheeled carriage, from a supposed resemblance to a vinegar-seller's cart."
---A-Z of Food and Drink, John Ayto [Oxford University Press:Oxford] 2002 (p. 359)

"Vinaigrette. A cold sauce made from a mixture of vinegar oil, pepper, and salt, to which various flavourings may be added...Vinaigrette is used especially for dressing green salads...It is considred to be a typically French sauce and is often called "French dressing" in Britain. It was a French emigre, Chevalier d'Albingac, who started the fashion in London high society for salads dressed in ths way."
---Larousse Gastronomique, Jenifer Harvey Lang [Crown:New York] 1988 (p. 1137)

A buffet of "French" dressings through time:


A Forme of Cury [English cook book]

"On Seasoned Lettuce...

They say the divine Augustus was preserved in a time of ill health by the use of lettuce, and no wonder, because it aids digestion and generates better blood than other vegetables. It is eaten cooked or raw. You season raw lettuce this way if it does not need washing...put it in a dish, sprinkle with ground salt, pour in a little oil and more vinegar and eat at once. Some add a little mint and parsley to it for seasoning so that it does not seem entirely bland..."
---Platina: On Right Pleasure and Good Health, [Italian:1475, original text in Latin], translated by Mary Ellen Milham [Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies:Tempe] 1998 (p. 213)


John Evelyn [England] (recipe on left)

"To dress lettuce as salad...

Put the yolks of the eggs on a large plate, and with a wooden spoon mash them smooth, mixing with them a table-spoonful of water, and two table-spoonfuls of sweet oil. The add, by degrees, a salt-spoonful of salt, a teaspoonful of mustard, and a tea-spoonful of powdered loaf sugar. When these are all smoothly untied, add very gradually three table-spoonfuls of vinegar. The lettuce having been cut up fine on another plate, put it to the dressing, and mix it well."
---Directions for Cookery in Its Various Branches, Miss [Eliza] Leslie [Carey & Hart:Philadephia] 1849 (p. 203)

"Sauce a la Vinaigrette

This is a sauce much used in Paris for cold viands. Sauce a la vinaigrette is composed of salad oil, vinegar, finely-chopped parsley, and shallots, onions, or chives, with pepper and salt to taste. For those who have no objection to oil this sauce is infinitely superior to mere vinegar, pepper, and salt. It is suitable for every kind of cold meat, and especially for cold calf's head; and is admirable with cold salmon, turbot, or indeed any sort of cold fish."
---Cassell's Dictionary of Cookery with Numerous Illustrations [Cassell, Petter, Galpin:London] 1875? (p. 1091)

"French dressing"

Boston Cooking School Cook Book, Mrs. D.A. Lincoln

"French Dressings

French Dressing Bases
French dressing base No. 1, (Lemon color). Original French dressing: One-fourth teaspoon salt, one-fift teaspoon freshly ground black pepper, one tablespoon pure vinegar, four tablespoons pure olive oil.
French dressing base No. 2, (Pink color). One-fourth teaspoon salt, one-fifth teaspoon paprika, one-third teaspoon sugar, one tablespoon pure vinegar, four tablespoons pure olive oil.
French dressing base No. 3, (Pink color). One-fourth teaspoon salt, one-fifth teaspoon paprika, one-third teaspoon salt, one-fifth teaspoon paprika, one-third teaspoon sugar, one tablespoon lemon juice, four tablespoons pure olive oil.
"French dressing base No. 4, (Orange color). Obesity: One-fourth teaspoon salt, one-fifth teaspoon paprika, one tablespoon lemon juice, three tablespoons mineral oil. Mix salt, pepper and vinegar together, then whip in oil. In whipping all ingredients together (excepting oil) at start and then whipping in oil you get a thicker, better blended sauce.
French dressing base No. 5. For all dressings where cream is used as part of garnish. One-fifth teaspoon mustard (dry), one fifth teaspoon paprika, one-fourth teaspoon salt, one-half teaspoon tomato catsup, one-fourth teaspoon sugar, one tablespoon vinegar, five tablespoons olive oil. Mix thoroughly the mustard, paprika, salt, catsup, sugar and vinegar together, then whip in oil. This gives you a sauce that will stand up, and to which you can add cream, mayonnaise, or other sauces without fear of separating. Whip this sauce thoroughly to emulsify."
---Edgewater Beach Salad Book, Arnold Shircliffe [Hotel Monthly Press:Chicago IL] 1928 (p. 243)

"Brown Derby Old-Fashioned French Dressing
, 1 1/2 qts.
This is the French Dressing which became so popular among the stars that the Brown Derby was prevailed upon to bottle it for home use. The cup of water is optional, depending upon the degree of oiliness desired in this dressing.
1 cup water
1 cup red wine vinegar
1 tsp. sugar
Juice of 1/2 lemon
2 1/2 tbs. salt
1 tbs. ground black pepper
1 tbs. Worcestershire sauce
1 tsp. English mustard
1 bead garlic, chopped
1 cup olive oil
2 cups salad oil
Blend together all ingredients except oils. The add olive and salad oils and mix well again. Chill. Shake before serving. This dressing keeps well in the refrigerator. Can be made and stored in a 2 qt. Mason jar."
---Brown Derby Cook Book, Robert H. Cobb [Doubleday and Company:Garden City NY] 1949 (p. 68-69)

"Sauce Vinaigrette

(French Dressing for Green Salads and Salad Combinations)
For about 1/2 cup, enough for salad for 6
1 to 2 Tb excellent wine vinegar, or combination of vinegar and lemon juice
1/8 tsp salt
1/4 tsp dry mustard
6 to 8 Tb best-quality oilive oil or salad oil, or a combination of both
Big oinch of freshly ground pepper
Optional: 1/2 Tb minced shallots or scallions and/or 1/4 tsp dried herbs, such as tarragon or basil
Either beat the vinegar, salt, and mustard in a bowl until dissolved, then beat in the oil and season with the pepper and herbs, or place all ingredients in a screw-top jar and shake vigorously for 30 seconds to blend thoroughly. Taste carefully for seasoning."
---French Chef Cookbook, Julia Child, Seventeenth Show [Alfred A. Knopf:New York] 1972,(p. 14-15)

Tomato-based French dressings (USA)
Only in America? Could a convenience dressing like this happen. Arnold Shircliffe's Edgewater Beach Hotel Salad Book [1928] offers two samples. In the orange version he adds the word "obesity" without comment. The red version features tomato ketchup. Both are creamy and sweet. In period context, these dressings make perfect sense. Prohibition recipes were generally sweeter than those of the previous generation.

We Boomers remember the tangy sweet flavor of this creamy brilliant orange dressing. For many of us, it was the only dressing we liked. Growing up, oil & vinegar dressings were called "Italian." Vinaigrette is a pleasant revelation to us.

"Like salads, salad dressings metamorphised this century. There were new additions: Green Goddess, Thousand Island, Russian, Roquefort, ranch. But the bottling of dressings had greater impact. Hellmann's creamy "deli-style" mayonnaise went into the jar in 1915--a landmark...Kraft played a pivotal role early on, too, with a slim but select repetoire of bottled dressings including the ever popular Miracle Whip and coral-colored French dressing. Busy cooks loved these "convenience" dressings. In fact many considered them superior to anything they themselves could make....Family French dressing...This is the dressing most of us grew up on. And until Julia Child taught us how to make vinaigrette in the 1960s, it was the one we ladled over wedges of iceberg or tossed with mixed greens."
---American Century Cook Book: The Most Popular Recipes of the 20th Century, Jean Anderson [Clarkson Potter:New York] 1997 (p. 296)

Advertisements in Favorite Recipes from Marye Dahnke's File, Kraft-Phenix Cheese Corporation [1938] confirm Kraft was marketing "Two distinctive French Dressings, both made by Kraft. Kraft French Dressing with its delicately appetizing tang has long been a favorite. Miracle French Dressing woes its wonderful "racy" flavor to a special French trick in seasoning." (p. 47).

"Dixie French Dressing

One level teaspoon salt
One level teaspoon sugar
One level teaspoon mustard
One-half level teaspoon paprika
Three tablespoons vinegar
Two tablespoons lemon juice
Two tablespoons chili sauce
One level tablespoon chopped sweet pickle
One level tablespoon chopped olives
Two tablespoons catsup
one-half cup salad oil
Mix the dry ingredients, add the remaining ingredients and beat vigorously for three minutes. Serve very cold on slices of cucumber or on head lettuce."
---Bettina's Best Salads and What to Serve With Them, Louise Bennett Weaver and Helen Cowles LeCron [A.L.Burt Company:New York] 1923 (p. 9-10)

French Dressings, Edgewater Beach Hotel Salad Book/Shircliffe

Ketchup Dressing

To foundation recipe (see above) add 1/4 cupful Heinz Tomato Ketchup and mix thoroughly."
---Heinz Book of Salads, [H.J. Heinz Co., Pittsburgh] 1930 (p. 11)

"De Luxe French Dressing

3 tablespoons sugar
4 tablespoons ketchup
2 tablespoons vinegar or lemon juice
1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
1/2 teaspoon salt
3/4 cup oil
1 clove garlic (peeled and sliced in two)
1. Place ingredients in order given in a pint jar; shake thoroughly or beat with spoon until consistency of maple syrup.
2. Keep in cooler and shake or beat well before using.
Makes 1 1/2 cups dressing."
---Prudence Penny's Cook Book, Prudence Penny, [Prentice Hall:New York] 1939 (p. 208)

Cobb salad
Cobb Salad, as we know it today, was introduced by Bob Cobb, owner of the Brown Derby restauarant in Los Angeles California sometime in the late 1920s. An amalgam of interesting greens, meat, cheese, and eggs, this dish descends from 17th century
Salmagundi. 1940s Chef's salad may have been inspired by the Cobb.

"During the first four years the original Little Hat Derby added only two items to its menu--a salad and a cake. The salad was almost an accident. Bob Cobb, growing weary of the steady hot-dog-hamburger diet, found an avocado in the icebox. He chopped it up, along with some lettuce, celery, and tomatoes, plus a strip of bacon and some salad dresing, and had that for his dinner. Several days later he tried it agian, adding other ingredients which he had purchased on his way to work: breast of chicken, chives, hard-boiled egg, watercress, and a wedge of Roquefort cheese for the dressing. And that's how the Cobb Salad was born. Today, the Cobb Salad, though many restaurants serve it under other names, is a national favorite."
---Brown Derby Cookbook, forward by Robert H. Cobb and introduction by Marjorie Child Husted [Doubleday & Company:Garden City NY] 1949 (p. 6)
[NOTE: According to this source, the first Brown Derby restaurant opened February 1926. This timelines the genesis of Cobb Salad between the years 1926 & 1930.]

Cobb Salad, Serves 4-6
1/2 head lettuce
1/2 bunch watercress
1 small bunch chicor
1/2 head romaine
2 medium-sized tomatoes, peeled
2 breasts of boiled roasting chicken
6 strips crisp bacon
1 avocado
2 hard-cooked eggs
2 tbsp. chopped chives
1/2 cup fine grated imported Roquefort cheese
1 cup Brown Derby Old-Fashioned French Dressing
Cut finely lettuce, watercress, chicory, and romaine and arrange insalad bowl. Cut tomatoes in half, remove seeds, dice finely, and arrange in a strip across the salad. Dice breast of chicken and arrange over top of chopped greens. Shop bacon finely and sprinkle over the salad. Cut avocado in small pieces and arrange around the edge of the salad. Decorate the salad by sprinkling over the top the chopped eggs, chopped chives, and grated cheese. Just before serving mix the salad thoroughly with French Dressing." (p. 22)

"Brown Derby Old-Fashioned French Dressing, 1 1/2 qts.
This French Dressing whcih became so popular among the stars that the Brown Derby was prevailed upon to bottle it for home use. The cup of water is optional, depending upon the degree of oiliness desired in the dressing.
1 cup water
1 cup red wine vinegar
1 tsp. sugar
Juice of 1/2 lemon
2 1/2 tbs. salt
1 tbs. ground black pepper
1 tbs. Worcestershire Sauce
1 tsp. English mustard
1 bead garlic, chopped
1 cup olive oil
2 cups salad oil
Blend together all ingredients except oils. The add olive and salad oils and mix well again. Chill. Shake before serving. This dressing keeps well in the refrigerator. Can be made and stored in 2 qt. Mason jar." (p. 68-69)
---Brown Derby Cookbook, forward by Robert H. Cobb and introduction by Marjorie Child Husted [Doubleday & Company:Garden City NY] 1949

Cole slaw
We know from Apicius that Ancient Roman cooks prepared shredded cabbage dressed with vinegar, eggs and spices. Food historians generally agree the term "cole slaw" is of Dutch origin, implying perhaps that the true progenitor of modern coleslaw is most likely a Medieval creation with Roman roots. Mayonnaise is an 18th century invention, meaning the recipe (as we know it today) is only about 200 years old.

The origin of the term "cole slaw' holds much interest for food historians. Notes here:

"Coleslaw means literally 'cabbage salad'. English borrowed and adapted the word from Dutch koolsla at the end of the eighteenth century, probably from Dutch settlers in the USA, and the first printed example of it shows its outlandishness tamed to cold slaw--a folk-etymological modification often repeated in later years. English does however have its own equivalent to Dutch kool, 'cabbage', namely cole. Like kool, this comes ultimately from Latin caulis, 'cabbage', whose underlying etymological meaning is hollow stem'."
---An A to Z or Food and Drink, John Ayto [Oxford University Press:Oxford] 2002 (p. 85)

About cole slaw in America

"Coleslaw. Also, "cabbage salad," Shredded cabbage, mayonnaise, and seasonings, usually served cold as a side dish. The words are from Dutch koolsla, a combination of kool, "cabbage," and sla, "salad" a dish that was known in America in print by 1785. Because it is usually served cold, some call the dish "cold slaw" in contrast to "hot slaw," but there is no relation to the temperature in the etymology."
---The Encyclopedia of American Food & Drink, John F. Mariani [Lebhar-Friedman:New York] 1999 (p. 92)

"The earliest European settlers on North America's eastern shores brought cabbage seeds with them, and cabbage was a general favorite throughout the colonies. The Dutch who founded New Netherland (New York State)...grew cabbage extensively along the Hudson River. They served it in their old-country ways, often as koolsla (shredded cabbage salad). This dish became popular throughout the colonies and survives as coleslaw...By the 1880s, cabbage and its cousins had fallen from favor with the upper class because of the strong sulfurous odors these vegetables give off when cooking...But this sturdy and versatile vegetable never disappeared from middle-class kitchens."
---Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America, Andrew F. Smith [Oxford University Press:New York] 2004, Volume 1 (p. 147)

"Cool sla, cabbage salad, has, of course become cole slaw; in the nineteenth cnetury housewives who had forgotten, or never known, that cool is Dutch fo "cabbage," were already miscalling the dish "cold slaw," which gave illegitimate birth to "warm slaw.""
---Eating in America: A History, Waverley Rood & Richard de Rochemont [William Morrow and Company:New York] 1976 (p. 302-3)

Peter G. Rose, New Netherlands foodways historian, states Peter Kalm mentions coleslaw in his Travels in North America; The English Version of 1770 (p. 347): "...he describes how his Dutch landlady served him "an unusual salad," which "tastes better than one can imagine...cabbage... cut in long thin strips" dressed with oil, vinegar, salt, and pepper, well mixed to evenly distribute the oil." Soruce: The Sensible Cook: Dutch Foodways in the Old and New World [Syracuse University Press:Syracuse NY] 1989 (p. 28). Her modernized version of this 18th century salad (based on Mr. Kalm's description) here:

"Cabbage Salad.
2 cups green cabbage, cut into thin strips
2 cups red cabbage, cut into thin strips
1/3 cup wine vinegar
1/4 cup vegetable oil or 1/4 cup melted butter
Salt and freshly ground pepper
Mix the above ingredients well ahead of dinner time so that the flavors can marry."
---ibid (p. 116)

Coleslaw, 1839

Cold Slaugh.
Select firm, fragile heads of cabbage, (no other sort being for for slaugh); having stripped off the outer leaves, cleave the top part of the head into four equal parts, leaving the lower part whole, so that they many note be separated till shaved or cut fine from the stalk. Take a very sharp knife, shave off the cabbage roundwise, cutting it very smoothly and evenly, and at no rate more than a quarter of an inch in width. Put the shavings or slaugh in a deep china dish, pile it high, and make it smooth; mix with enough good vinegar to nearly fill the dish, a suffient quantity of salt and pepper to season the slaugh; add a spoonful of whole white mustard seeds, and pour it over the slaugh, garnish it round on the edge of the dish with pickled eggs, cut in ringlets. Never put butter on cabbage that is to be eaten cold, as it is by no means pleasant to the taste or sight."

"Warm slaugh.
Cut them as for cold slaugh; having put in a skippet enough butter, salt, pepper, and vinegar to season the slaugh very well, put it into the seasonings; stir it fast, that it all may warm equally, and as soon as it gets hot, serve it in a deep china dish; make it smooth, and disseminate over it hard boiled yolks of eggs, that are minced fine."
---Kentucky Housewife, Lettice Bryan, facsimile reprint 1839 edition stereotyped by Shepard & Stearns:Cincinnati [Image Graphics:Paducah KY] (p. 192-3)

19th century American recipes, search recipe name: slaw (retrieves cold slaw, cole-slaw, hot slaw, etc.)

About cabbage
About mayonnaise (and its ancient egg, vinegar & spice precursors)

If you want to learn more about cabbage we recommend:

Raw vegetables in various forms appear in appetizer sections of American cookbooks of the 19th century. These were often stuffed (celery with cream cheese) or presented as garnish (radish florets). A survey of primary sources reveals raw vegetable platters with dip began showing up in the 1940s. At that time they were not called crudites. Our survey of cookbooks, magazines and newspapers articles confirms the use of the term "crudite" in American print at least to the 1960s. These vegetable platters were promoted by women's magazines (easy & portable), gourmet journals (creative and colorful), restaurants (inexpensive & easily assembled), and health professionals (raw vegetables are excellent for fighting cancer and other diseases).

What exactly are crudites (pronounced croo-dee-tay)?
"Crudites. Raw vegetables or fruits served as an hors d'oeuvre, generally thinly sliced, grated or cut into little sticks and accompanied by cold sauces. Crudites include carrots, celeriac, cucumber, sweet peppers, red cabbage, celery, fennel, fresh broad (fava) beans, cauliflower (in very small florets), tomatoes, mushrooms, radishes, small artichokes, quarters of grapefruit, orange and apple, round slices of banana sprinkled with lemon, slices of avocado and, although it is cooked, beetroot (red beet). The various items are often presented as an assortment, with several sauces. A plate of crudites may also include a hard-boiled (hard-cooked) egg in mayonnaise."
---Larousse Gastronomique, Complete revised and updated [Clarkson Potter:New York] 2001 (p. 381)
[NOTE: the original 1938 French edition of Larousse Gastronomique also contains an entry for crudites. There is no entry in the classic 1961 edition.]

"In French, crudite literally means 'rawness'. Hence its application, in the plural, to an hors d'oeuvre dish or small pieces of raw vegetable, such as celery, cucumber, carrot, peppers, or cauliflower, served with a dip of mayonnaise or similar cold sauces. Its introduction into English is comparatively recent."
---An A to Z of Food and Drink, John Ayto [Oxford University Press:Oxford] 2002 (p. 99)

Sample recipes

"Raw-Vegetable Hors D'Oeuvres

Among the simplest and most popular hors d'oeuvres are pieces of raw vegetable such as small cauliflower flowerets, carrot strips or curls, cucumber fingers or wedges, strips of green pepper, celery curls and hearts, endive and tomato wedges. These are served without toothpicks. Keep in ice water until ready to serve; drain thoroughly. If desired, serve with a sauce (see Cold Dunking Trays, p. 266). Provide salt for those who may prefer to eat the vegetables without sauce."
---Woman's Home Companion Cook Book, Willa Roberts [P.F. Collier & Son:New York] 1942 (p. 268)

"Raw Vegetables.

Several plates of raw vegetables or a plate of various mixed raw vegetables is acceptable in the melange of things served for hors d'oeuvres. They should be the choices the market affords and should be carefully cleaned and crisped in ice water before serving. Radishes: The tiny rosy ones as fresh and crisp as you can find them. If the tops are fresh and green, leave them on for eye appeal. Onions: Tiny green onions, carefully cleaned and freshened in water. Always a pleasant addition. Celery. Celery hearts, strips of celery, or stuffed celery (using any of the canape spreads) are good addition. Fennel: The anise-flavored Italian root is a change. Pepper: Strips or rings of green pepper. Carrot: Strips of tender raw carrot. Watercress: Watercress is a decorative addition as well as a delicious tidbit. Tomatoes: Sliced tomatoes, plain or with French dressing. Stuffed Eggs: Any of the recipes for stuffed eggs are acceptable for this type of service. Or you may serve: Eggs a la Russe. Cut peeled hard-cooked eggs in half. Place them in a serving dish, yolk side down, and cover with Russian dressing. Decorate with capers."
---The Fireside Cook Book, James A. Beard [Simon & Schuster:New York] 1949 (p. 35)

Prepare a mayonnaise and add to it 1 tablespoon Dijon mustard, a dash of Tobasco, and 3 tablespoons chopped parsley. Blend well. Serve as a sauce for the crudites. Arrange a selection of raw vegetables as attractively as possible on individual plates or on one large platter. You might combine cherry tomatoes, scallions, radishes, celery and asparagus. These may be eaten with the fingers. If you choose vegetables such as carrots, or celeriac, which can be cut in julienne strips or shredded, a fork is in order. One three-star restaurant in France serves a 'bouquet of crudites' as a first course in which the vegetables are cut very fine and each is served in a different sauce. It is the most appetizing dish imaginable."
---James Beard's Menus for Entertaining, James Beard [Dell Trade Paperback:New York] 1965 (p. 145)
[NOTE: Mr. Beard's Mayonnaise recipe appears on p. 346. Happy to send if you need.]

"Crudites (Raw vegetables)
...pack a variety of raw vegetable tidbits in each of 4 plastic sandwich bags. These might include raw cauilflowerettes, celery hearts, radishes, young raw green asparagus."
---"The Fast Gourmet," Poppy Cannon, Chicago Daily Defender, May 24, 1966 (p. 19)

For party-goers or party-givers who want taste without waist, these raw crisp vegetables, called crudites in France, could be a favorite hors d'oeuvre. Prepare them an hour or more before use and refrigerate until party time. Provide individual platters for all with...vegetables weighed in advance...[Suggested vegetables, with instructions for preparation:] beans (green or wax), bean sprouts, broccoli, carrots, cauliflower, celery, celeriac (celery root), Chinese cabbage, Chinese snow peas, cucumbers, fennel, kale, kohlrabi, lettuce, mushrooms, parsley, pimentos, spinach, radishes, scallions, squash (summer), tomatoes, watercress...Suggested dips for individual servings: Pimiento Dressing, Tangy French Dressing, Mock Hollandaise Sauce (recipes included, happy to send.)
---Weight Watchers Program Cookbook, Jean Nidetch [Hearthside Press:Great Neck NY] 1972 (p. 253-254)
[NOTE: this recipe includes Weight Watcher "counting" points.]

"Crudites is the kind of dish that's easy to take for granted.
There's nothing big deal about crisp and colorful vegetables arranged around a ramekin of tangy dip. Or is there? "It's been on our menu for 16 years," says David Evans, co-owner of The Great Lost Bear, a popular local eatery in Portland, Maine, where checks average about $15. "We could never take it off." That menu at The Bear is certainly big--about 120 items--and written with an eye for humor. The crudites with curry dip--which fetches $3.95 and accounts for more than 1% of the meal mix--is labeled "Some Like it Raw," followed by a brief description. The Bear's version of crudites is simple. The featured vegetables include celery, carrots, zucchini, mushrooms, bell peppers, cauliflower and broccoli, chosen because they are all readily available, consistently priced and don't need any cooking. If par-cooking is not an issue, then potatoes and string beans can be added to the list of vegetable choices. Of course, any of the raw vegetables could be blanched or steamed slightly, Just be sure not to overcook, and to shock them immediately in ice water. Some more unusual or seasonal vegetables also make excellent crudites: snap peas, fennel, assorted radishes, jicama, cherry tomatoes, olives, asparagus, watercress sprigs, cooked artichokes or even boiled broad beans. And don't stop with vegetables. Fruit crudites--with a sweetened yogurt, creme fraiche or sour cream dip--makes a festive breakfast or brunch item. How you cut, hold and present these products will determine how appealing the dish is to customers. Because the vegetables for "Some Like It Raw" at The Great Lost Bear are all used in other menu items, no special prep is involved and there is virtually no waste. According to Evans, everything is cut into convenient large slices except for the mushrooms, which are halved, and the trimmed broccoli and cauliflower florets. Evans' cooks do all the prep This crudites presentation with piquant bagna cauda dip features both raw and par-boiled vegetables ahead of time, and store the vegetables in water in the refrigerator. For service, chosen pieces are blotted and strewn on a big plate. The curry dipping sauce that accompanies The Bear's crudites has not changed in the last 16 years. It's a simple blend based on a combination of mayonnaise and sour cream. The dip has become their signature. Vinaigrettes also make sprightly dips, especially if flavored vinegars or oils are used--although one that is completely emulsified and will not separate is both better tasting and better looking. Bean, legume, or vegetable purees provide reduced-fat alternatives with flavor and body. Consider offering customers a choice of different dips. There's also a resurging popularity in the close cousin of crudites--fondue--where a warm cheese sauce provides the centerpiece for a presentation that can include raw and/or par-cooked vegetables and bread cubes. Another hot dip for cool crudites is bagna cauda, a rustic, anchovy-and-garlic-flavored dipping sauce whose name translates as "warm bath" in Italian."
---"A way with crudites," Kerri Conan, Restaurant Business, June 10, 1995 (p. 98)

Fruit salad
When did fruit salad originate? The answer depends upon how define the dish. Fruit salads (ie combinations of various fresh, dried, candied [with sugar], stewed and/or fruits with vegetables) since ancient times. The ingredients and recipes depended upon what was available (country, seasons) and socio-cultural attitudes toward the ingredients (was raw fruit considered healthy or not?).

Fruit salad, as we know it today [a variety of fresh, often tropical, fruits], surfaces in the mid-19th century. Ambrosia is popular variation featuring coconut. Culinary evidence confirms sometimes fruit salad was mixed with sugar and alcohol, thus the term "fruit cocktail." Non-alcoholic versions of this recipe were concocted during Prohibition. Also popular in the 1920s were jellied fruit salads. Think: Jell-O molds. During World War II fruit salads were promoted to ensure proper amount of vitamin C were included in the American diet. Both canned and fresh fruits were recommended. Fruit salads in northern Europe (Germany, for example) evolved differently. These recipes used mayonnaise.

"Fruit salad, an item which has adorned millions of menus in the western world, was first recognized as a dish in the mid-19th century....It is of course possible to have a 'salad' of dried fruits and nuts, as in the Middle Eastern khoshab; and, further east, Indonesia offers the spicy fruit salad rujak, which is patently different from anything in the western world."
---Oxford Companion to Food, Alan Davidson [Oxford University Press:Oxford] 1999 (p. 323)

A sampler of American fruit salad recipes:

"Apricots, Oranges, Peaches, Pears, Strawberries, Raspberries, Blackberries, Currants, and Like Berries in Salad. Dust the bottom of a dish with white sugar, put a layer of slices of apricots, oranges, peaches, or pears, or a layer of the others entire, and dust again; repeat the same till the whole is in, then add over the whole a pinch of grated nutmeg, and French brandy or rum to suit your taste, and serve."
---What to Cook and How to Eat It, Peirre Blot [New York:1863] (p. 202)

Fannie Farmer's recipes

"Fruit Salad. Equal quantities of grape fruit or oranges, apples and celery. Peel the grape fruit or oranges, carefully removing all the bitter white skin; cut the pulp with bananas and apples into small dice, and cut the celery fine as for other salads; put the orange and apple together; the latter will absorb the juice of the orange. Set all on ice--these fruit salads must be ice-cold. When it is time to serve mix the fruit and celery together, put into a salad bowl, cover with cream dressing into which has been stirred a third as much cream as there is dressing, and add a little more salt to it in mixing. Serve in a bed of tender lettuce leaves."
---The American Home Cook Book, Grace E. Denison [Barse & Hopkins:New York] 1913 (p. 378)

"Chop Suey Fruit Salad. (Six portions)
(Dainty for afternoon party refreshments.)
On cup chopped figs
1-half cup chopped dates
One-half cup chopped prunes
One-half cup raisins
Two tablespoons lemon juice
One-half cup filberts
One-half cup diced pineapple
One cup Delicious Cream Salad Dressing
One-half cup whipped cream
Mix the salad dressing and whipped ream and combine with the rest of the ingredients. Serve daintily on lettuce leaves."
---Bettina's Best Salads and What to Serve With Them, Louise Bennett Weaver and Helen Cowles LeCron [A.L. Burt:New York] 1923 (p. 51)
[NOTE: This book offers several fruit salads, each with a brief headnote suggesting meal/course placement.]

"Salads in which fruits form a prominent part are becoming very popular. They are often served as a first course at lunchoens or in place of a course of fruit at dessert. For a first course they should be rather acid or made with fruit acid in nature, while later during a meal they are more enjoyed if sweetened and more highly flavored. As a rulee they are most attractive looking compounds often highly fragrant and appeal to all of our senses. Almost any kind of acid fruit is nice to serve in this way. For eating with meats of birds the ordinary French dressing, omitting the onion, is good. For dessert, or at one of our American 'Teas,' cold sweet fruit mixtures are preferred. Neufchatel cheese is enjoyed with them at a late breakfast or luncheon. The fruit salads may be put into an ice cream freezer and cooled with the usual mixture of salt and ice. When handsome glass or porcelain dishes, with silver ones to place them in, are not available a pretty way to serve fruit salads is in dainty glasses. Peaches, fresh figs and the many varieties of berries have always been popular with sugar and cream but, for variety, try one of the following methods which may be considerably varied by changing the fruits and proportions as the supplies change or the taste varies.

"Mixed Fruit Salad. Fill delixated cuos or glasses with fresh pine-apple, bananas and white grapes, cut, halved and seeded, the pulp and juice of oranges and candied cherries, all the fruit to be cut rather fine. Cover them with a dressing made with four tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar, one gill of sherry, one tablespoonful maraschino and two of champagne. Stir until the sugar is dissolved and then pour over the fruit and let the classes stand in a cold refrigerator an hour before serving. Another dressing is made with four tablespoonfuls of sugar and half a teaspoonful of cinnamon mixed with two tablespoonfuls of sherry and the same of Maderia [sic]. Some people delight in a mixture of acid fruit, currants, raspberries, morello cherries, strawberries etc., with candied fruit cut into small strips, angelica, citron, cherries, oranges and all the many kinds that are now prepared. Give a dressing of sugar and wine."
---American Salad Book, Maximillian De Loup [Doubleday, Page & Co.:Garden CCity NY] 1926, forut edition, revised (p. 106-107)
[NOTE: This book offers recipes for Fruit Salad with Jelly, French Fruit Salad, Grape Fruit and Lettuce, Grape Fruit with Mayonnaise, Cherry Salad, Pear Salad, Acid Pear Salad, Alligator Pear Salad, Mexican Alligator Pear Salad, Prickly Pear Salad, Orange Salad (8 recipes), Green Apple Salad, Apple Salad, Apple and walnut Salad, Apple and Celery Salad, Raspberry Salad, Strawberry Salad, Quince Salad, Currant Salad, Fig Salad, Mulberry Salad, Pineapple Salad, Melon Salad, Fruit Salad (with mayonnaise dressing).]

"Plenty of fruit is a daily must in meals, so don't overlook fruit salad as an appetizer, main dish, salad course, or dessert, in keeping up your family's fruit and vitamin quota. Of course, oranges and grapefruit, lemons, tangerines, and strawberries are especially good vitamin C sources. But bananas, apples, canned pineapple, peaches, and pears, prunes, apricots--in fact, all fresh, canned, and dried fruits--lend a helping hand, too."
---Good Housekeeping Cook Book, new edition, completely revised [Farrar & Rinehart:New York] 1944 (p. 564)
[NOTE: This book contains recipes for apple and cottage cheese salad, banana and pineapple surprise salad, frozen ginger ale salad, frozen pear and cream cheese salad, frozen pineapple and cheese salad, frozen pistachio cheese salad, fruit salad plate, jellied fruit dessert salad, jellied grape salad, jellied grapefruit and lime salad, jellied strawberry cheese dessert salad, and several [fresh] fruit salad bowls.]

What is fruit cocktail?
Fruit cocktail, a sweetened mix of assorted diced fruits served in a decorative stemmed glass, is generally presented in the appetizer course. Unlike its culinary cousins
Ambrosia (dessert) and Fruit Salad (salad), it was also commercialized. Early recipes are variously monikered "fruit cup" or "fruit cocktail." The crossover was sorely noted by domestic scientists. Coincidentally? This period marked the crossover between several late 19th health foods (most notably breakfast cereal & peanut butter)and sweet commercial profits.

"We have fallen so much into the fashion of practicing a 'course luncheon with what are sometimes called 'fruit cocktails' that we have almost lost sight of the value of the fruit cup as a final course of sweets at dinner or luncheon. Our English cousins apply the name 'dessert' to fruits alone. We give it, indiscriminently, to puddings, pies, ices, jellies, custards and fruits whatver may be the name or nature of the dishes following the main business of the dinner. In bringing our present subject to the front, we harmonize wth the nomenclature of both nations. Our fruit cup is especially convenient to the sagacious housemother, now that the changing seasons invite latitude and indifference to foods that have been partaken of freely all winter. The full maturity of the berry is not yet here..."
---"School for Housewives," Marion Harland, Los Angeles Times, May 15, 1910 (p. VIII6)

"In these latter days many American cooks make a mixture of fruit, sugar and alcohol, and serve them as "salad." These are not salads; are heavy, rather unwholesome, and will never take the place of a salad. I much prefer to call them fruit cocktails, and serve them as first course at at luncheon or a twelve o'clock breakfast; or a dessert, and serve them with the ices at the close of the meal. Fruits mixed with mayonnaise dressing, and served as a salad are unsightly, unpalatable and little nauseating. One cannot think of anything more out of keeping than white grapes in a thick mayonnaise. The simple so called French dressing is delicate and most worthy of recommendation. Over lettuce, cress or celery it certainly makes a palatable and wholesome dinner salad, and one in which children can be freely indulged. Such fruits as apples, pears, cherries, and pineapples, mixed with celery or lettuce, with French dressing, make an agreeable dinner salad."
---Mrs. Rorer's New Cook Book, Sarah Tyson Rorer [Arnold and Company:Philadelphia] 1902 (p. 439)

"Menu for Independence Day

Fruit Cocktail, Olives, Radishes, Lobster Bisque, Crown Roast of Lamb, Mint Sauce, Carrots, Peas, Latticed Potatoes, Artichoke or Tomato Jelly Salad and Cheese Straws, Cherry Pie or Strawberry Ice Cream with Martha Washington Cake, Demi-Tasse, Fruit Punch."
---"Uncle Walt," Los Angeles Times, June 30, 1911 (p. II4)

"Fruit Cocktail

For the fruit cocktail mix in a cold bowl equal parts of peeled and diced honey dew melon, peeled and diced oranges, peeled and diced firm ripe peaches, peeled and diced apricots, pitted cherries, and diced pineapple. Set in ice box for three hours before serving. Divide into tall stem glasses and top each glass with a large strawberry dipped in powdered sugar."
---"Pracitcal Recipes," Los Angeles Times, A.L. Wyman, December 8, 1924 (p. A8)

"1913...Fruit cocktail is created by a California canner."(p. 79) "1927...Fruit canners agree upon a single "recipe" for fruit cocktail." (p. 161)
---American Century Cookbook, Jean Anderson [Clarkson Potter:New York] 1997

Related food? Ambrosia!

Iceberg wedge (aka Heart of Lettuce)
Period cookbooks, old newspapers, and culinary reference books confirm the popularity of iceberg (also known as crisphead) lettuce in the 1920s. They do not, however, reveal claimants (hotels, chefs, restaurants) to the invention of the classic American wedge-type salad served with creamy dressing. The general concensus of current sources squarely places this salad as a ubiquitous menu entry of the 1950s and 1960s. The lettuce wedge lost its place in the 1970s when consumers were intrigued by more interesting salads. Recently, the iceberg wedge salad has resurfaced as a "reinvented" item on trendy menus. The new accompaniments are blue cheese (Maytag, esp.) and nuts. What was
Iceberg lettuce?

About Iceberg wedge salad
"There once was a time--before the arrival of mesclun, frisee, endive, spring mix, packaged salads, radicchio and arugula--when iceberg lettuce dominated the produce aisle. Quartered, shredded, its leaves pulled off and transformed into cups for canned pears, it knew no rival until the 1970s when Caesar Chavez called for a boycott to protest the working conditions of California lettuce pickers. Tastes changed, too. The wedge of iceberg drowning in a thick dressing was replaced with vinaigrette-tossed leaf lettuces (especially romaine) and smaller, more exotic "designer" greens, all more nutritional and more flavorful than the "neutral" iceberg. Iceberg--a head lettuce, as opposed to a leaf lettuce--is also known as "crisphead" lettuce since one of its chief virtues (some say its only virtue) is that it stays fresher longer than leaf lettuces."
---"Market Watch 6/23: Iceberg Lettuce," Jeanne McManus, The Washington Post, June 23, 1999, Pg. F04

"Take one wedge of iceberg lettuce. Open a bottle of dressing and pour. Garnish with a tomato slice. You've got salad, 1960s-style."
---"Salads with Sizzle; How Do YOu Dress Up a Salad into a Meal? Chefs Offer Their Suggestions," Leslie Kelly, Spokesman Review (Spokane, WA), June 18, 1997 (p. D1)

"Short of heating up a TV dinner, there are few more blatantly retro gestures than ordering a wedge of iceberg lettuce covered in a thick, creamy salad dressing. The lettuce itself remains popular in the United States. It still accounts for 70 percent of the lettuce raised in California, but that share is declining (in the mid-1970's it was as high as 80 percent), and anyone dining at fancier restaurants around the United States might wonder if it hadn't disappeared entirely, displaced by frisee, dandelion greens, oak leaf, lollo rosso, exotic cresses, microgreens, sprouts -- anything, in short, that's green, has a leaf, and is not iceberg. But iceberg somehow manages to hang on. Steakhouses refuse to give it up. And in some very unlikely places, it has earned a strange kind of cachet..."It's one of those things that's synonymous with growing up in America," Mr. Otsuka said. "Everybody has a comfort level with it. Served cold, it's very nice on the palate, with a good crunch." Marc Meyer, at Five Points, anoints a wedge of the stuff with a modernized, Europeanized blue cheese dressing made with picon cheese from Spain, toasted almond slices and radishes...Despite its shortcomings, iceberg has always had its fans. James Beard was one. "Many people damn it," he once wrote, "but when broken up, not cut, it adds good flavor and a wonderfully crisp texture to a salad with other greens." It also keeps longer than other lettuces, he pointed out. Flavor? Surely the iceberg stands supreme as the blandest of all greens. Little pieces? Most Americans side with the prim instructions given in the first "Joy of Cooking." "Heads of iceberg lettuce are not separated," the directions read. "They are cut into wedge-shaped pieces, or into crosswise slices." The lettuce is a relative newcomer, and confusingly named. A lettuce that went by the name of iceberg was developed in the 1890's, and somehow the name resurfaced when new varieties of durable, easily shippable crisphead lettuce began emerging in California in the mid-1920's. In 1948, the iceberg we know today was born. Why iceberg? No one seems to know, although one popular theory holds that the name refers to the tons of ice that chilled it in the days before refrigerated rail cars. The big, cold wedge is a cornerstone of American cuisine. It survives, and so do the sludgelike dressings that drape it like heavy velvet curtains -- the great, goopy family that includes blue cheese, green goddess, ranch and Thousand Island. I went for the wedge the other day at Del Frisco Double Eagle Steak House. It arrived under a lavalike green ooze, a creamily high-caloric green goddess dressing lumpy with tender bits of avocado....Michael Jordan's The Steak House...the wedge wore a blue cheese dressing...John Schenk, the chef at Clementine, tuned in to this particular frequency years before tony restaurants began playing with iceberg..."
---"CRITIC'S NOTEBOOK; An Offering to the Green Goddess," William Grimes,The New York Times, June 14, 2000, (p. F1)

While icberg lettuce was employed for a variety of salads, the "classic" American restaurant wedge topped with a generous dollop of creamy dressing was sometimes called "Heart of Lettuce." Creamy Roquefort was the traditional dressing.

"Lettuce Salad and Roquefort Dressing

Lettuce hearts
1 clove garlic
1/4 teaspoonful dry mustard
1 saltspoonful salt
1 saltspoonful paprika
3 tablespoonfuls vinegar
Olive oil
3 tablespoonfuls Roquefort cheese
2 hard-cooked eggs
Place the lettuce hearts in a salad bowl which has been rubbed over with the cut clove of garlic. Mix together the mustard, salt, paprika, vinegar, and beat in olive oil until thick; then gradually add the cheeese and the hard-cooked yolks of eggs rubbed through a sieve. Pour over the lettuce and serve garnished with the whites of eggs."
---Salads, Sandwiches and Chafing Dish Recipes, Marion Harris Neil [David McKay:Philadelphia] 1916 (p. 214)

[1949] "Heart of Lettuce Salad
Form cups from better outer leaves of iceberg lettuce. Cut head into 4 to 6 wedge shaped pieces, then arrange a wedge in each cup of lettuce. Make one to two lengthwise, then cross-wise cuts almost through the wedge to make cutting of salad with fork easier. Garnish with strip of pimento, celery curl and carrot strips. Top with favorite dressing."
---"Salads," Chicago Defender, December 10, 1949 (p. 20)

"Lettuce Salad with Roquefort Dressing

1 head lettuce
1 tablespoon chopped chives
1 tablespoon chopped parsley
Roquefort French Dressing
Remove outside leaves and core from lettuce; wash and drain. Cut lengthwise into quarters; arrange each on a salad plate; sprinkle with chives and parsley, and serve with dressing. Serves 4. Instead of Roquefort French Dressing use: Avocado Dressing, Cottage Cheese Dressing, Frozen Tomato Mayonnaise."
---Culinary Arts Institute Encyclopedic Cookbook, Ruth Berolzheimer editor [Culinary Arts Institute:Chicago] 1950 (p. 537)

"Salade Subversive

ingredients: lettuce, tomato, Russian Dressing
1. cut [lettuce] into wedges
2. cut [tomato] into quarters
3. arrange thusly [wedge in the middle of the plate, tomato quarter on each side]
4. pour over [Russian dressing]--serve."
---The New Wolf in Chef's Clothing: The picture cook and drink book for men, Robert H. Loeb, Jr. [Follett Publishing Company:Chicago] 1950, 1958 (p. 53)

"Head lettuce
, or iceberg lettuce, or Simpson lettuce is the most familiar of lettuces. It is the firm, tight, compace head of light-green leaves. Separated, the leaves make a lettuce cup as a container for potato salad, fruit salad, and so on. Cut in wedges, it is a favorite of men, particularly those who like to pour blue-cheese dressing over it."
---McCall's Cook Book [Random House:New York] 1963 (p. 490)

About Iceberg Lettuce

"Ethnic/Cultural Info: This type of lettuce is an excellent choice for making a classic Greek salad with tomatoes, radishes and cucumbers. In 1894, a Burpee & Co. seed catalog stated this about iceberg lettuce: "There is no handsomer or more solid Cabbage Lettuce in cultivation." Unfortunately, this lettuce variety has been the bane of true gourmet cooks and the butt of many culinary jokes. It has been claimed that a "cold pack" made from chilled iceberg lettuce leaves aids in the relief of bumps and bruises. Chill whole leaves in freezer for at least one hour; crumple and secure with tape on the injury. Works every time.

Geography/History: They say this lettuce came to be when a different looking and sweeter tasting head of lettuce somehow appeared in a grower's field over one hundred years ago. Noticing it was quite different from the lettuces surrounding it and liking its flavor and superior crispness, the growers teamed with other lettuce producers to make it even better. This variety became a top seller and remains very popular still today. More accurately called crisphead, there are actually many varieties of this type of lettuce. Some varieties produce reddish leaves tinged with green and some have plain and scalloped edges. Iceberg lettuce was called "crisphead", its true name, until the 1920s. It acquired the name iceberg because of its ability to be an excellent long distance traveler when packed on ice. Depending on the time of year, crisphead lettuce develops a firm head in 60 to 120 days and is harvested by hand. It has been claimed that a "cold pack" made from chilled iceberg lettuce leaves aids in the relief of bumps and bruises. Chill whole leaves in freezer for at least one hour; crumple and secure with tape on the injury. Works every time."
Specialty Produce

Macaroni (pasta) salad
Pasta salad, as we Americans know it today, descends from a long line of dressed macaroni dishes, both hot and cold. Dressings (oil/vinegar, mayonnaise, cream sauces) and additions (vegetables, herbs, spices) varied according to culture and cuisine. In early 20th century we begin to find recipes for macaroni salad in American cookbooks. These were typically dressed with mayonnaise and served in cold molded presentations. Think: perfect domes of chilled macaroni salad served as "sides" in diners & delis. Alternatives? A side of cottage cheese or coleslaw. In the USA, "Macaroni salad" generally denotes a mayonnaise dressed side dish, popular for picnics. "Pasta salad" is generally dressed with
vinaigrette. Both are served chilled, can welcome chopped vegetables (celery, onion, olives)and are popular sides in hot weather. Which macaroni shape to use? Elbow macaroni is traditional in the USA.

According to a survey of articles published in the New York Times, recipes titled "pasta salad" were published in the early 1960s. They proliferated in the 1980s, when Nouvelle Cuisine delighted in creating dishes with gourmet pastas of various shapes, sizes, and colors. Pasta salad was a trendy way to carbo-load back in the Yuppie era. This simple, economical dish was promoted on two fronts: upscale, affordable cuisine and practical way to use leftovers. Before long? Mainstream American food companies began promoting "pasta salad" box kits. These can still be found in our grocery stores today.

"Macaroni Salad

1/2 pound (58 sticks) macaroni
1 1/2 tablespoonfuls fresh grated horseradish
1 teaspoonful sugar
1/2 teaspoonful salt
1 pint (2 cups) whipped cream
Crisp lettuce leaves
Break the macaroni into small pieces, boil in plenty of boiling salted water until tender, then drain and cool. Mix the horseradish with the sugar, salt, and whipped cream; fold in the macaroni and serve heaped on lettuce leaves. Another Method.--Boil one package of macaroni, then rinse it with cold water and drain. Cut it into short lengths, place one-half of it in a jar of vinegar in which boiled beets have been pickled, and let it remain until colored a pretty pink. Line a salad dish with crisp lettuce leaves and arrange the pink and white macaroni in alternate rings. Garnish with sprigs of parsley and tiny leaves of lettuce. Serve with boiled salad dressing. Spaghetti may be used in the same way."
---Salads, Sandwiches and Chafing Dish Recipes, Marion Harris Neil [David McKay:Philadephia] 1916 (p. 216)

"Elbow Macaroni Salad. A nutritious and Satisfying Summer Dish. Put one package elbow macaroni in three quarts of boiling salted water, cook until tender, which will generally take about ten minutes; stir occasionally,. The place elbow macaroni in colander and shake until thoroughly drained. Never start to cook in cold or merely warm water. Method.--Mix cooked elbow macaroni with one cup mayonnaise, add one onion (grated), two green peppers (chopped)), Serve on lettuce leaf garnish with chopped egg and slices of green pepper."
---"Tested Recipes," Washington Post, July 24, 1927 (p. 12)

"Mock Potato Salad.

1/2 package elbow macaroni
6 large-sized potatoes
1 medium-sized onion
1 small red or green pepper
1 hard boiled egg
Mayonnaise and seasoning to taste. Boil the potatoes with the skins on. When cool peel and cut in dice-sized cubes. Boil the macaroni until tender, in salted water, immerse in cold water. Cut the onion and pepper in small pieces. Mix all together with the mayonnaise and seasoning. Garnish on top with the hard boiled egg and a little parsley if desired. This is quite an addition to the old-fashioned potato salad.
Miss Effie M. Cockrill, Vienna, Va." ---"Four Best Macaroni Recipes are Published for Readers," Stephanie Reilly, Washington Post, November 17, 1930 (p. 11)

"Macaroni salad.

Cook 1 pound of elbow macaroni according to the directions on the package. Drain thoroughly and prepare as you do Potato Salad 3."
---James Beard Cookbook, in collaboration with Isabel E. Callvert [E.P. Dutton:New York] 1961 (p. 385)
[NOTE: Potato Salad 3 is dressed with mayonnaise and garnished with pimiento strips, slices hard-cooked egg, sliced olives and capers.]

"THE pasta salad,
that darling of the carry-out shop, is here to stay. Especially in warm weather, the idea of tossing vegetables or seafood or poultry or meat or just herbs with a dressing, anchoring the mixture with cooked and cooled macaroni, tortellini or spaghetti to make it filling enough to be dinner is especially appealing. Pasta salads can be strictly improvisational, relying more on a pass through the leftover department of the refrigerator than on a planned shopping list. The inspiration can be Italian, French, Asian or a combination of these influences assembled with a kind of artful freedom that only a contemporary American kitchen can provide. Thus, Asian sesame oil and wine vinegar imported from France that coexist on the pantry shelves can be called upon to dress the salad. When preparing a pasta salad, it is important to bear in mind that pasta is high in starch. The salad should be well-lubricated to prevent the mixture from becoming sticky and gummy, which it often does as it waits to be served, especially if it has been refrigerated. The one problem with a great many of the pasta salads prepared by catering shops is that they are too stiff. There are two ways of alleviating this problem. First, when preparing pasta, especially for a salad - and even when using leftover pasta that has been in the refrigerator - the pasta should be well-rinsed in cold water. Don't worry if some of the water still clings to the pasta after it has been drained, because the little that does will dilute the sauce and may actually enhance the texture of the salad, keeping the dressing smooth and satiny. Second, the dressing should be thick enough to cling to the pasta and the other ingredients but should not be so stiff that it will not drop from a spoon. A heavy mayonnaise should be diluted with some lemon juice, milk, vinegar and oil, well-stirred yogurt or other liquid. And after a pasta salad has been refrigerated, it should be mixed to make sure that the dressing still coats the ingredients and has not been absorbed by the pasta. Adding cucumbers or tomatoes with their high moisture content to pasta salads helps maintain the pleasing, smooth balance of pasta and dressing. If a salad has been refrigerated, always check the seasonings before serving, because cold temperatures tend to diminish flavors. The following salads can be served as appetizers, main dishes or side dishes for lunches, suppers or picnics. Chicken and Ziti Salad 1 pound ziti Salt 1/2 cup chicken consomme 1 1/2 cups fresh green beans, in 1/2-inch length (about 1/2 pound) 2 small zucchinis, quartered lengthwise and cut into 1/2-inch thick slices 1 cup peeled, diced cucumber 4 cups diced cooked chicken 1/2 cup minced red onion freshly ground black pepper 1 1/2 cups mayonnaise, preferably home-made 3 tablespoons minced fresh dill 1/2 cup coarsely chopped walnuts.
1. Drop ziti into boiling, salted water and cook until tender, about eight minutes. Drain, rinse in cold water and drain again thoroughly. Mix with consomme and set aside.
2. Drop beans into boiling salted water and cook for one minute. Add the zucchini and cook two minutes longer, until the vegetables are cooked but still crunchy. Drain, allow to cool and mix with ziti.
3. Add cucumber, chicken and onion. Season with salt and freshly ground pepper. Fold in the mayonnaise and two tablespoons of the dill.
4. Salad should be refrigerated if not used immediately. If the dressing has become too stiff, mix in a little more consomme. Check salad for seasoning and garnish the top with remaining tablespoon of dill and the walnuts before serving. Yield: 8 servings.

Chinese Shrimp And Pasta Salad 1 cup mung bean sprouts 3/4 pound raw medium shrimp 1 cup peeled, seeded, sliced cucumber 1 teaspoon minced fresh ginger 2 scallions, minced 2 teaspoons minced fresh coriander leaves 1 tablespoon dry sherry 2 tablespoons rice vinegar 1/3 cup sesame oil, Asian style 1 teaspoon soy sauce 1/4 teaspoon hot chili oil 1/2 pound Asian buckwheat noodles (soba), cooked, drained and rinsed in cold water.
1. Bring a quart of water to a boil. Drop in the bean sprouts. When the water returns to the boil, remove the sprouts with a slotted spoon and drain.
2. Add the shrimp to the boiling water. When the water returns to a full boil the shrimp will have turned pink. Remove shrimp and drain. As soon as the shrimp are cool enough to handle, shell, de-vein and slice them in half lengthwise. Combine shrimp, bean sprouts and cucumbers and mix with ginger, scallions, coriander, sherry, vinegar, sesame oil, soy sauce and hot chili oil.
3. Place cooled, drained noodles in a bowl, toss with the shrimp mixture and serve. Yield: 2 to 4 servings.

Cold Pasta, With Fresh Tomatoes 3 cups peeled, seeded, chopped ripe tomatoes 1 teaspoon finely minced garlic 2 tablespoons lemon juice 3 tablespoons white wine vinegar 1/3 cup olive oil 2 tablespoons minced fresh basil 2 tablespoons minced fresh parsley 2 tablespoons drained capers 2 tablespoons chopped pitted Greek olives 1 pound thin spaghetti or linguine salt and freshly ground black pepper.
1. Combine tomatoes, garlic, lemon juice, wine vinegar, olive oil, one tablespoon each of basil and parsley, the capers and olives in a bowl. Season to taste with salt and pepper and set aside. You should need very little salt.
2. Bring at least four quarts of salted water to a boil. Add spaghetti or linguine and cook until al dente, six to eight minutes. Drain well and rinse thoroughly under cold running water. The rinsing will cool the pasta and also remove enough starch so it is less likely to become sticky.
3. Toss the pasta with the sauce. Taste and season with salt and pepper if desired. Sprinkle with remaining basil and parsley and serve. Yield: 4 to 6 servings."
---"Food; Many Faces of Pasta for Summer Dining," Florence Fabricant, New York Times, Jun 20, 1982 (p. A16)

Related menu selections? Oriental noodle salad & Potato salad.

Mesclun salad
Mesclun, a salad composed of leafy greens of various colors and textures, originated in the Provence. It could be argued that mesclun descends from the Ancient Roman tradition of serving mixed greens with dressing. Some say this simple salad originated as peasant food. That would explain its ommission from French culinary texts. Curiously (or not) J.B. Reboul's La Cuisiniere Provencale (1897) does not include mesclun. Escoffier, Elizabeth David, Julia Child are silent.

When did Americans "discover" mesclun?
Mesclun entered the American culinary lexicon in the late 1970s. Presumably, travelers returning from Provence clamored for the trendy "new" salad. California chefs in trendy restaurants recognized potential. Today, we find pre-packaged mesclun mixes (aka spring mix) in mainstream supermarkets. And yes! They command higher prices than standard salad greens.

Is it mesclun or mesclum?
In the USA this leafy mix is called mesclun. Provencal purists prefer mesclum. There is NO connection between mescal (potent taquila ingredient) and mesclun.

"The Provence regions along the Mediterranean coast are still the keenest herb-consuming areas of France, wehre the current 'in' salad is called 'mesclun'--a medieval mixture of cost lettuces [red and white], chicories [both bitter and curly], chervil and winter cress. Peasant food that has become the Rolls-Royce of salads, it commands high prices in Saint Tropez restaurants and sells at the exclusive Fauchon store on the Place de la Madeleine in Paris at around $2 a pound."
---"Latest from Paris," Monique, Chicago Tribune, August 3, 1967 (p. C8)

"The lightest and most refreshing first course is the mesclun, a Provencale salad of lacy mixed greens with a sharp vinaigrette dressing made with strong, fruity olive oil and served with garlic and oil-flavored croutons."
---"Great French Country Restaurants," Mimi Sheraton, New York Times, June 27, 1979 (p. C1)
[review of Restaurant de Bacon]

"Some say mesclun. Others say mesclum. Some insist that this fashionable Provencal salad is a blend of a dozen different greens, all sown, grown and picked together. Jean and Yvonne Tabo, maraichers, or market gardeners, who were among the first to grow it commercially in France, are categorical: it's called mesclum. According to them, it's nine or 10 different greens, each grown in separate rows, then tossed together in approximately equal proportions when picked. And if you want each of the greens to have the right texture and flavor, you pick them when they're very small and very young.

"The Tabos, who live in Carros, the herb and vegetable growing region just north of Nice, switched from selling vegetables to growing them about 10 years ago. They settled on mesclum because, at the time, no one was growing this traditionally Nicoise salad mixture commercially. Today, they are one of a handful of maraichers - and possibly the only ones - who specialize in mesclum. Their lettuce is savored not just in France, but also in Copenhagen, London, Berlin and Toronto, where it is flown three times each week, year round, from the Nice airport. (They do not yet fly their mesclum to the United States, but are now discussing the possibilities with a California supplier.) The Tabo mesclum, grown in impeccably neat rows in a series of low, open-sided greenhouses, includes red and green-tipped oak-leaf lettuce, rocket, romaine, chervil -both a slightly curly white endive and a firmer, very curly green variety - escarole and a very bitter variety of dandelion. In the wintertime, the Tabos add a few rows of colorful red trevise, the firm and bitter lettuce that takes its name from the Italian town of Trevise.

"'For some reason, when we grow trevise here in the summertime, the leaves won't turn red, and it doesn't taste the same,'' explains Madame Tabo. The greens are picked early in the morning, and only the youngest, tenderest shoots are selected. Then, they are plunged together directly into a water bath, drained and packed loosely in sturdy wooden crates for the market. Like the history of many regional foods, the mesclum story is hazy. Some historians suggest that both the word mesclum (Latin for mixture) and the idea for the salad blend, were brought into Nice from the Ligurian region of Italy before Nice was reunited with France in 1860. In Nice, the salad became known as mesclun in standard French and mesclum in the Nicois dialect known as nissarde. The Tabos and others in the region remember that their parents and grandparents always grew a blend of greens in the family potager, or vegetable garden, then mixed them with all the wild and domestic herbs that grew so naturally and profusely in the area.

"During the late 1940's, as restaurants proliferated along the Cote d'Azur, mesclum grew in popularity and also became better known outside of Provence. Today, maraichers like the Tabos have plenty of company north of Nice, where the terraced hillsides are covered with row upon row of serres or greenhouses, shelters for the tons of herbs, lettuce, tomatoes and zucchini blossoms that are grown in the hot, humid climate year-round. The greens are usually sold in loose bunches in outdoor fruit and vegetable markets throughout the region, and sometimes they are simply called salade melange. The best place to find mesclum today is in Nice's Cours Salyea open air market, held each morning but Monday. There are also large commercial operations that grow the mixture, package it in plastic and sell it in supermarkets or sometimes open air markets.

No matter how mesclun is grown or what kinds of greens are contained in the mixture,, the challenge for the chef is to present a multicolored, multitextured salad with a subtle contrast of flavors, ranging from feathery and delicate to pungent and assertive. A home-composed mesclum salad might include peppery nasturtium blossoms, firm-leafed pourpier (purslane), mache (lamb's lettuce), senneson (chickweed) and parsley, as well as a few leaves of basil, summer savory and lavender-tipped hyssop. Purists, such as the Tabos, insist that neither vegeta bles, croutons nor cheese should be added to this already complex mixture, and that the salad should be tossed by hand, after sprinkling it with a simple vinaigrette, consisting of nothing but extra-virgin olive oil, homemade red wine vinegar, salt, pepper and perhaps a touch of Dijon mustard."
---"Fare of the Country; Melange of Greens Grown in France," Patricia Wells, New York Times, November 9, 1986 (sect. 10, p. 12)

"Throughout the country, energetic and experimental gardeners and farmers are creating scrumptious salads using eclectic blends of seasonal greens. Often referred to as mesclun, such concoctions have their origins in the markets of southern France and northern Italy and are the staples of everyday shoppers in Nice, Provence, Rome, and Athens. Mesclun was introduced to our shores in part through the creativity of experimental and high-priced restaurants. What the laborer eats in Europe is often remarkably similar to what's served to the gastronomes of New York City.

"After nearly a decade, mesclun has begun to enter America's backyard gardens. One example of this trend is the popularity of 'Marvel of Four Seasons', a colorful red-leafed butterhead lettuce. This gorgeous and tasty lettuce--which also stands up to the heat of early summer--was relatively unknown four or five years ago. At that time it was sold only in a few specialty seed catalogs such as the Cook's Garden, Le Marche Seeds International, and Shepherd's Garden Seeds, usually under the French name 'Merveille des Quatre Saisons'. Now this lettuce is available from larger seed companies as well.

"Mesclun is a French dialect word from the region around Nice and translates roughly as "mixture." The definition of the "proper" mixture of greens, however, is as varied as the number of growers. Two of the most common ingredients are rocket, or arugula (Eruca vesicaria subspecies sativa), and chervil (Anthriscus cerefolium). Some people attribute mesclun's beginnings to thrifty market gardeners who harvested and sold the seedlings thinned from their plots of salad greens. American gardeners and small-market growers have greatly expanded the European concept to include edible wild greens, an amazing range of herbs, and colorful edible flowers. Indeed, almost any edible plant can be used, and discovering new ingredients adds to the fun of growing and serving mesclun.

"One of the people who introduced and expanded the definition of mesclun is Doug Gosling, for eight years the head gardener of the Farallones Institute, in Occidental, California (recently renamed the Center for Seven Generations Gardens). An astute gardener, Doug is known for the superb quality of his organically grown and meticulously gathered mesclun. One produce broker in New York City rates the Farallones mix as "the best from the West Coast. It is the wonderful blend of all the oddball and seasonal wild edibles that sets the Farallones mix apart from others." Gosling says growing mesclun ingredients "brings a renewed sense of discovery and joy to the garden. We look at the entirety of a plant's life to see what it has to offer. This approach to growing a salad is really more about a shift in attitudes than a change in gardening skills." Sometimes new salad ingredients turn out to be plants thought of as weeds. "We used to overlook plants like salad burnet [Sanguisorba officinalis], plantain [Plantago major], purslane [Portulaca oleracea], and wild mustard [Brassica juncea]," says Gosling. "Now we gather different parts of each and even move the plants around in the garden like any cultivated plant." Farallones gardeners harvest the most succulent, tender, and tasty portion of each wild edible, and only during its prime season. Tiny portions of young salad burnet leaves are gathered in spring. Tender leaves of lemony dock (Rumex acetosa) are snipped from the heart of the rosette. Only the first small leaves of the slightly bitter dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) are harvested. Tender tips of lamb-squarters (Chenopodium album) are collected only until the plant begins to bloom. The young, juicy foliage of purslane, however, can be used throughout the summer. And the best time to use wild mustard is when the young flower buds have formed. At that stage, according to Gosling, "they taste like a spicy form of sprouting broccoli."

"Culinary herbs can also be included in mesclun. When an herbal garnish is mixed into the salad, it's like incorporating some of the salad dressing--all that's needed is a splash of oil. The list of herbs suitable for mesclun is long and includes plants such as chives (Allium schoenoprasum), summer savory (Satureja hortensis), fennel (Foeniculum vulgate), golden marjoram (Origanum marjorana), variegated lemon thyme (Thymus x citriodorus), the young leaves of lovage (Levisticum officinale), basil (Ocimum basilicum), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), anise hyssop (Agastache foeniculum), and sweet cicely (Myrrhis odorata). Tiny sprigs, tender young shoots, or the freshest flowers of these herbs are blended into the mix to give exciting bursts of flavor. Be careful using the mints, however, as they bruise easily and darken in storage; a vinaigrette dressing will darken the foliage even further.

"While working at the Farallones Institute, Gosling developed a number of techniques for growing mesclun that have made it more efficient to cultivate, expanded its range of flavor, and extended its growing season. As Gosling remarks, "We had the luxury of approaching salad gardening as an art. I could focus on excellence without the economic constraints that most farmers face." What impresses me the most about Farallones mesclun is its vitality and extended shelf life. If properly refrigerated, it stays almost perfectly fresh for 10 days or more. Gosling explains the mix's longevity thus: "Much of the keeping qualities are probably due to the early-morning harvest. We carefully hand pick only the best leaves. We field wash the mix only if there's a bit of wilt. The greens are spun dry. And certainly a healthy soil makes for healthy plants." The gardeners at Farallones prefer organic methods, which depend on a healthy, fertile soil. The Institute's gardens were begun in 1975; to date, 75 to 150 tons of compost have been applied to the raised beds, which total less than four acres. For each 100 square feet of bed, the gardeners apply two wheelbarrow loads of compost and one wheelbarrow load of aged dairy manure. Next they single dig the beds, breaking up the surface clods as they shape the beds. Gosling says that he and the other gardeners actually "massage the beds, crumbling all the small clods with our hands." Finally, before each bed is planted, they sprinkle it lightly with quarry dust, which costs $9.00 a ton and provides valuable trace minerals."
---"Mesclun," R. Kourik, Horticulture, April 1991 (p. 36)

"What's in a name? A lot of dining and gardening excitement when the name is "mesclum." One definition calls mesclum "nothing more than a mixture of special green, some tangy and some mild, that are usually harvested young and mixed in your favorite salad.?" So meteoric is its rise that the National Garden Bureau, a nonprofit research organization funded by seed companies, has made 1997 the year of Mesclum."
---"Mesclum brings status to salads," Christian Science Monitor, March 20, 1997 (p. 15)

Compare with this 19th century American recipe:
"Chiffonade salad.
This salad consisits of all the salads in season. For example, lettuce, romaine, chicory escarole, tomato, beets, and celery cut in long slices. The dressing for this salad is made as follows: Take one hard-boiled egg, and smash it as fine as possible with a fork; then add two pinches of paprika and a pinch of salt, half a teaspoonful of French mustard, a teaspoonful of hashed chives, a teaspoonful of hashed estragon, two tablespoonfuls of oil, and three tablespoonfuls of vinegar. Add this to the salad, mix it well together and serve."
---"Women Can Order Dinners," New York Times, August 7, 1898 (p. 14)

Oriental noodle salad
Food historians tell us noodles aka (macaroni, pasta) quite likely developed independently in two centers of origin: Asia and Europe. Notes
here. Over time, noodle recipes developed according to culture and cuisine. Think cold macaroni salad with mayonnaise, onions & egg [Germany], oil/vinegar dressing & fresh veggies [Mediterranean cuisine], veggie-laden pasta salads. "Chilled noodles," [aka Oriental Noodle Salad, Chinese Noodle Salad] as we American know them today, appears to descend from the Asian tradition of serving noodles for fast meals. Think: noodle bars. Food of the people: delicious, versatile, filling. Hot or cold! American-style Chinese Chicken Salad dates to the 1930s. The dressings (& vegetables, spices, flavors) enjoyed in popular chilled oriental noodle salads of the 1980s/1990s partied harmoniously along this successful culinary theme. WHO among us does not like cold leftover lo-mein (or pizza while we're talking about fridged leftovers?). USA Oriental noodle salad simply, elegantly, intelligently, moved the cold noodle concept to the next level. Special Asian dressings were developed for these new salads.

Our survey of historic USA newspapers suggests this cold noodle salad was introduced to American diners in the early 1980s. This coincided with a resurging interest in "new" asian cuisine [apart from standard Chinese-American fare] AND carbo-loading diets. Think: chilled Italian pasta salad featuring small bite colorfully presented veggies & dressing. Cold Far east-inspired followed suit. Both salad types were promoted to savvy lunchers as a healthy, economical, delicious alternative to standard fast, American traditional, or continental fare. As true with many recipes of this type, there are many variations and names. In the case of Oriental noodle salad, recommended noodles range from traditional (soba) to fast food (ramen). In a pinch "Italian" pasta products work just fine. The underlying culinary elements are cold noodles dressed oriental-type sauce. Sesame oil and peanuts are common, but not required, elements.

"Karen Lee's Cold Noodles With Spicy Peanut Sauce

8 ounces thin Chinese egg noodles or Japanese buckwheat noodles (soba) 1/4 cup smooth peanut butter or sesame butter 5 tablespoons brewed black tea 1 tablespoon plus 2 teaspoons dark soy sauce 1 to 1 1/2 teaspoons chili oil 2 teaspoons Oriental sesame oil 2 teaspoons wine vinegar 2 teaspoons sugar 1 teaspoon minced garlic 1 scallion, chopped. 1. Boil noodles until tender, drain, rinse in cold water and set aside, covered. 2. Mix peanut butter with tea until peanut butter has dissolved. Add soy sauce, chili oil (more or less depending on how spicy you want the dish), sesame oil, vinegar, sugar and garlic. Pour sauce over noodles and toss. 3. Sprinkle with scallions, toss again and serve. Yield: 4 servings."
---"Being Creative When a Picnic Impulse Hits," Florence Fabricant, The New York Times, May 27, 1981 (P. C1)

"A revolution is under way in American cooking. It has become the primary focus for cooking schools and cookbooks, young chefs and new restaurants...Thousands of words have been written about the revolution, which highlights a mixture of culinary cultures; a return to the rustic, the homespun and the simple; an emphasis on fresh fruits and vegetables, fish and poultry in place of red meats; the use of meat as a condiment rather than the center of the meal, and the disappearance of thick gravies and cream sauces. A look at the combined impact of these elements leads to a somewhat unexpected conclusion, one that the professionals are just beginning to talk about: Nutrition and good food can co-exist...
"Cold Chinese Noodle Salad
8 ounces Chinese egg noodles, preferably fresh
1 1/2 teaspoons sesame oil
3 tablespoons brewed tea or water
2 tablespoons dark soy sauce
2 tablespoons sesame seed paste
1 tablespoon peanut oil
1 tablespoon dry sherry
2 teaspoons red wine vinegar
1 teaspoon sugar
2 garlic cloves, mashed to paste
Half-inch piece of fresh ginger, finely minced
1 1/2 teaspoon chili oil
Freshly ground black pepper
Chopped green onion
1. Cook noodles in boiling water for 2 to 4 minutes, tasting frequently so they don't overcook. Drain well and toss with sesame oil. Cover and refrigerate up to 2 days ahead.
2. Combine remaining ingredients except green onion and mix well. (Sesame paste often separates and can be difficult to recombine. Paste and some oil can be processed in food processor with steel knife. Add garlic and ginger, and while paste is being blended, garlic and ginger will be finely minced.) Refrigerate for up to a week. Before serving, return to room temperature.
3. To serve, mix sauce with noodles and serve topped with green onion.
Yield: 2 to 3 servings.
NOTE: If fresh Chinese egg noodles are not available, use American spaghettini or linguine. Leftover cooked chicken meat can be julienned and added to the sauce if desired. Chinese sesame paste is preferable to tahini, Middle Eastern sesame paste, because it has a more intense flavor, but tahini can be substituted.
"---"New Food Ways to Help a Busy Cook Cope," Marian Burros, New York Times, March 2, 1983 (p. C1)

"Chilled Oriental Noodle Salad

1 (3-ounce) package chicken-flavored Japanese-style noodles
3 tablespoons vegetable oil
1 teaspoon sesame oil
Dash chili oil
2 tablespoons rice wine vinegar
1 teaspoon sugar
Salt, pepper
1/4 cup very thin zucchini slices
1/4 cup shredded carrots
1 tablespoon green onion, cut julienne
1 clove garlic, minced
1/4 pound cooked bay shrimp
2 tablespoons toasted slivered almonds
Bring 2 cups water to a boil. Break noodles in several placed before opening package. Remove seasoning packet and set aside. Cook noodles over medium 3 minutes, stirring occasionally. Reserve 1 teaspoon seasoning mix for dressing. Remove noodles from heat and stir in remainder of seasoning packet. Chill. Combine reserved seasoning mix, vegetable, sesame and chili oils, rice wine vinegar and sugar and season to taste with salt and pepper. Mix well. Add dressing, zucchini, carrot, green onion, garlic and shrimp to noodle mixture. Refrigerate. Sprinkle almonds over salad just before serving. Makes 2 servings. Variations: 3 ounces cooked chicken, turkey, beef, pork, lamb, canned salmon or tuna may be substituted for bay shrimp."
---"It's In The Bag," Lois Drake, Los Angeles Times, October 9, 1986 (p. K1)

"The noodle was born in China. The peanut in South America. Cooks united the two in spicy cool salads. And we can't seem to get enough.

During the past decade, variations on the theme have become standards on menus of catering businesses, restaurants, supermarket delis, takeout food shops and casual cafes. Countless cookbooks include recipes for this popular dish, equally welcome on winter buffet tables and summertime picnic tables. When they're out of Oriental Noodle Salad at The Wedge, employees might as well duck behind the counter to avoid the wrath of disappointed customers. Leah Sprinkle, head chef at this specialty food store in University Village, says their blend of noodles with an Indonesian-style peanut sauce is a bestseller. During a busy week, with caterings, they make more than 50 pounds of it. Jane Hummer of Mangetout Inc. says the pairing of cool noodles and peanuts in salads seems to transcend all boundaries: "Whether we're catering at a construction site or in the elegant boardroom of a major corporation, this salad is a favorite."The blended flavors do a slow dance on the tongue - the sweet and sour from sugar and rice wine, the saltiness of soy sauce, the spiciness of chili peppers. But it's also the textures - the smoothness of cool noodles, the creaminess of peanut butter, the crunch of whole or chopped peanuts. Thin Chinese noodles - either dry or fresh - are standard for this salad. But you can substitute thin spaghetti - vermicelli or angel hair pasta. The salads are good for entertaining because most can be made in advance and refrigerated. As today's five recipes illustrate, imaginative cooks drive several culinary detours on their way to the same destination: -- Chinese Noodle Salad with Citrus and Spicy Peanuts gets flavor accents from orange juice and peel, rice and sherry vinegars, grated fresh ginger and jalapeno pepper. Raw shelled peanuts are baked with a mixture of oil, paprika, cayenne pepper and salt. Snow peas, carrot, green onions, daikon radish and cilantro provide more flavor, texture and eye appeal. The recipe is from Greens, the acclaimed vegetarian restaurant in San Francisco. Chef Annie Somerville says Chinese noodle salad has been a favorite since opening day, and this is the newest version.
-- The dressing for Asian Peanut Noodles includes crunchy peanut butter, brewed black tea, sesame oil and hot chili oil.
-- Peanut Noodles with Shrimp can serve as a main course salad. A half- pound of small cooked shrimp are tossed with the other ingredients, including pineapple chunks. The salad can be made up to 24 hours in advance. Stir in the roasted peanuts and diced cucumber just before serving.
-- Chunky peanut butter and coarsely chopped roasted peanuts both appear in Peanut-Yogurt Noodles with Slivered Vegetables. Matchstick slices of carrot and red bell pepper brighten the appearance. -- Combine parsley, garlic, peanuts, soy sauce, salt, sesame oil, butter or margarine, lemon peel and juice and freshly ground pepper in a food processor, and you have Peanut Pesto, a quick and easy mixture to sauce noodles or pasta."
---"Spicy Peanut and Pasta Theme is Privong Irresistibly Popular in Delis, Cafes and Cookbooks," Larry Brown, The Seattle Times, May 19, 1991 (p. F1)

"Remember when pasta salad meant elbow macaroni dressed with mayonnaise and not much else? Well, times have changed, and today the term pasta salad is just as apt to refer to Oriental noodles bathed in sesame oil or cheese tortellini tossed with sun-dried tomatoes. The options have swelled like noodles in water. Supermarkets offer a boatload of pastas, from tiny acine di pepe from Italy to soba noodles from Japan. Stir-ins, once limited to onions, celery and peppers, have expanded to exotic produce, imported cheeses and trendy seasonings. Even the dressings add variety, with flavored oils and infused vinegars pouring on new tastes. What all this means is that this summer's picnics and patio parties should not be boring. We offer a quartet of ideas, including a takeoff from the Middle Eastern tabbouleh, a sesame-flavored noodle salad from the Orient and a tortellini toss that's sunny with Mediterranean flavors. And for macaroni salad lovers, we present a version that is almost all-American.

1/4 cup rice wine vinegar
3 tablespoons sesame oil
2 tablespoons soy sauce
1 teaspoon sugar
3/4 teaspoon chili paste, or more to taste
1 clove garlic, minced
1 teaspoon grated fresh gingerroot
1/4 lb. fresh pea pods
1 bunch green onions, chopped
1 medium-sized sweet red pepper, cut into julienne strips
12 ounces fresh Chinese noodles
1/2 cup chopped peanuts
1/4 cup chopped cilantro for garnish
Whisk together the vinegar, sesame oil, soy sauce, sugar, chili paste, garlic and ginger. Set aside. Remove stem ends and strings from pea pods and blanch in small amount of boiling water about 1 minute, until color brightens. Drain and refresh under cold running water. Pat dry and cut crosswise into thirds. Place in mixing bowl with green onions and red pepper. Cook noodles according to package directions. Drain and cool under cold running water just until noodles are lukewarm. Drain and pat dry. Add to mixing bowl. Pour in dressing and toss thoroughly. Add peanuts and cilantro and toss again. Serve at room temperature. Makes 8 to 10 servings."
---"Pasta Salads Sport International Flair," Sue Dawson, Columbus Dispatch, June 7, 1995, (p. H1)

Asian-American salad dressings
Far East inspired dressings were developed to accompany
Oriental noodle salads.

"Chicken and Bean Sprout Salad.
Serves 4 to 6. Ingredients: 1 lb bean sprouts, 1/4 lb cooked chicken, cut in strips, Condiments: Salad dressing, 2 Tbs soy sauce, 1 tsp sesame oil, 1/8 tsp MSG. Method: 1. pour boiling water over beansprouts, Rinse with cold water. 2. Drain and cool for 5 minutes. Add chicken. 3. Add dressing. Chill for 20 minutes in the refrigerator. 4. Serve cold."
---The Fine Art of Chinese Cooking, Dr. Lee Su Jan, [Grammercy Publishing:New York] 1962 (p. 191)

"Chinese Chicken Salad [dressing]

2 tablespoon chopped toasted sesame seeds, 2 tablepoons sugar; 1 level teaspoon of salt; 1 level teaspoon of monosodium glutamate; 1/2 teaspoon of black pepper; 1/4 cup of salad oil, and 3 tablespoons of vinegar. Combine the ingredients and mix."
---"Round About," Los Angeles Times, June 30, 1963 (p. B28)

"Sesame Seed Oil Dressing.

1/2 tsp. sesame seed oil, 2 tbsp. Chinese plum suace, 1 tbsp. sugar, 1 tsp. white wine vinegar, 1/2 tsp. dry msutard. Combine oil, plum sauce, sugar, vinegar and mustard, mixing thorougly."
---"Menu Variety in Chinese Dishes," Los Angeles Times, October 17, 1968 (p. G33A)

"Chinese Chicken Salad Dressing.

2 tbsp. sugar, 1 tbsp. Sesame Oil, 1 tsp. salt, 3 tbsp. vinegar, 1/4 cup salad oil, 1/2 tsp. cracked pepper. Put all in bowl and beat with egg beater. Pour over salad and mix lightly. makes 6 generous servings."
---"International Treats, Los Angeles Times, July 14, 1977 (p. CS_A3)

Ads for commerically prepared dressings targeting home cooks appear in the mid-1980s:

"Flavors from the Orient have been captured in Oriental-Chef salad dressing. Oriental-Chef's four new flavors--delicate sesame, tangy soy, snappy ginger and creamy lemon--have been developed for American tastes. The dressing contain natural ingredients and about half the caloires of regular dressings. They are made with safflower and corn oil, which are low in cholesterol. Oriental-Chef dressings are processed in Baldwin park by Q&B Foods, Inc., of Q.P. Corp."
---"New dressings from the Orient," Los Angeles Times, Feburary 28, 1985 (p. K42)

Related menu selections? Chinese Chicken Salad & Pasta salad.

The concept is ancient, the practice is contemporary. Food historians confirm salads and breads of all sorts were enjoyed by Ancient mediterranean peoples. Bread dried quickly in the hot southern European climate. Thrifty people were not inclined to discard old bread; they cooked with it. Both salads and breads were often combined with tangy oil-based dressings. The marriage of all three was inevitable. Panzanella!

Modern recipes for panzanella (there are dozens of variations) can't be older than the 16th century. Why? Tomatoes are a new world food. The general concensus of the food experts is that panzanella, as we know it today, originated in the middle regions of Italy. The recipe was promoted to mainstream America in the late 1970s. The oldest reference to panzanella in the New York Times is a restaurant review for Da Silvano, January 14, 1977 (p. 56). A survey of magazine and newspaper articles reveals this salad became popular with gourmet diners in the United States sometime during the 1980s. Today? We find panzanella salad made with all sorts of interesting ingredients such as French bread, commercially-made salad dressings, artichoke hearts, and seafood.

"Panzanella...Summer salad of central Italy consisting of tomatoes, cucumber, onion, basil, vinegar, and olive oil. Also pan molle (soft bread) and panbagnato (soaked bread). From the Latin panis (bread)."
---Dictionary of Italian Food and Drink, John Mariani [Broadway Books:New York] 1997 (p. 178)

"Panzanella (Tuscan bread salad). This simple country salad surfaced on this side of the Atlantic in the 1980s with the proliferation of high-end Italian restaurants. There are dozens of variations on the theme."
---The American Century Cookbook: The Most Popular Recipes of the 20th Century, Jean Anderson [Clarkson Potter:New York] 1997 (p. 304)

"Waverly Root speaks none too fondly of panzanella: "A poor man's lunch," he calls it, "salad dressing on bread, producing a sogginess which accounts for its name (litlle swamp)." Mr. Root and his palate notwithstanding, panzanella is one terrific lunch. Basically a Tuscan bread salad with oil and vinegar, what else it contains depends upon who is doing the cooking. Tuscans call panzanella a cold picnic dish, with the ingredients put together at the last minute, the bread soaked in water at home, the tomatoes and cucumbers simply picked from the vines as needed. But one Roman source describes it as a first course served in large families to fill everyone up before the more expensive second-course dishes are put on the table. Tony May, the owner of Sandro's, Pailio and La Camelia, three Italian restaurants in Manhattan, says the dish is also called pane molle, which means "soft bread."...Earthy and satisfying, panzanella is, at the same time, cool and refreshing. In "The Food of the Western World," Theodora FitzGibbon talks about the anchovies, chilies, basil, garlic and capers it contains by never mentions tomatoes, except as a garnish. Other recipes call for onion, cucumber and celery. On calls for spring onions rather than yellow of red onions. Mr. Fiorti uses both green and red peppers...The proportions vary from cook to cook. Some use vast quantities of olive oil--six ounces to a half pound of bread--while others use only two ounces for a pound of bread. In fact, panzanella is a salad designed to be made with leftover, stale bread and whatever of the other ingredients are available. Italia bread--purists insist it must be Tuscan bread--is also indispensible, though there have been recipes suggesting the substitution of whole-wheat bread or rye bread for those who are not fortunate enough to have easy access to the comactly textured Italian, or even French, country loaves."
---"Panzanella, a Salad Perfect for Summer," Marian Burros, De Gustibus column, The New York Times, June 21, 1986 (p. 52)

"Q: I am trying to recreate a tomato and bread salad that I had when I was in Italy - and I never seem to be able to get it just right. Something is missing. Hopefully you have some advice. Thanks. _ Jay .J. A: So you want to make a Panzanella Salad. Panzanella ... doesn't it sound like some sort of military attack, using old-fashioned cannons? Actually it's what a tomato and bread salad is called....Tuscan bread, some seasonal tomatoes, some fresh basil, a little bit of really good local olive oil, and some balsamic vinegar. Toss it all in a bowl... Panzanella was probably invented for three reasons. One of them was because Italy was a very poor country for many years and bread was inexpensive. Also, nothing was wasted, and with this recipe, they could use stale bread. The last reason it probably came about was in the warm, dry Italian summers it was useless trying to keep the bread fresh. When it became dry they figured out a way to revive it with some simple ingredients. Today we think of Panzanella as a bread and tomato salad, but it's interesting to note that the salad actually dates to before the 1500s when tomatoes, a product from the New World, were unknown in Europe. So the original Panzanella salad did not have tomatoes, but probably included whatever was on hand in the garden _ like peppers, cucumbers, onions, and garlic, along with some capers, black olives, possibly anchovies, olive oil and a little bit of vinegar or lemon juice. I'm going to assume that you had the Panzanella in Tuscany, because it is considered a Tuscan dish (however, there are distinctive Panzanella salads from other regions, such as Sicily.)"
---"The Chef's Table: Panzanella done just right," Jim Coleman and Candace Hagan, Philadelphia Daily News, July 26, 2004 (food news)

Perfection salad
The term "Perfection Salad" has two meanings. In the broadest sense, it has come to stand for the social impact of American Domestic Science/Home Economics of the late 19th/early 20th century. Laura Shapiro's book Perfection Salad: Women and Cooking at the Turn of the Century explains the movement in detail. "Perfection Salad" is also a real recipe. It belongs to a class of molded gelatine salads made popular by food companies around the turn of the 20th century. The origin is generally attributed to the Knox Gelatin Company (Johnstown NY).

"At the tail end of the 19th century (in the United States) the domestic science/home economics movement took hold. Proponnents of this new science were obsessed with control. They considered tossed plates of mixed greens "messy" and eschewed them in favor of "orderly presentations." Salad items were painstakenly separated, organized, and presented. Molded gelatin (Jell-O et al) salads proliferated because they offered maximum control. "Salad greens, which did have to be served raw and crisp, demanded more complicated measures. The object of scientific salad making was to subdue the raw greens until they bore as little resemblance as possible to their natural state. If a plain green salad was called for, the experts tried to avoid simply letting a disorganized pile of leaves drop messily onto the plate...This arduous approach to salad making became an identifying feature of cooking-school cookery and the signature of a refined household...American salads traditionally had been a matter of fresh greens, chicken, or lobster, but during the decades at the turn of the century, when urban and suburban middle class was beginning to define itself, salads proliferated magnificently in number and variety until they incorporated nearly every kind of food except bread and pastry...Salads that were nothing but a heap of raw ingredients in disarray plainly lacked cultivation, and the cooking experts developed a number of ingenious ways to wrap them up...The tidiest and most thorough way to package a salad was to mold it in gelatin. American cooks were already accustomed to making fruit and wine jellies, or serving a decorative main dish such as boned turkey in apsic, and for these preparations they used either commercial gelatin or a homemade calf's foot jelly. The former, while more convenient, was available only shredded or in sheets, and needed to soak half an hour or longer before it was ready to use. In 1893 Sarah Tyson Rorer wrote to the Knox company suggesting that they produce their gelatin in granulated form, which would be easier to measure and would dissolved more quickly. A year later Knox began advertising a "Sparkling Granulated Gelatin," and offering to send upon rquest a copy of the recipe booklet "Dainty Desserts for Dainty People." Other manufacturers quickly imitated the innovation., and within the decade flavored granulated gelatines had been introduced as well. At first the new product was used much as the old shredded gealtins had been--to make puddings, mousses, charlotets, and jellies, as well as the occasional main dish, or tomato aspic--but the possibiltiies for the salad making soon became evident. "This is dainty for company," suggested a contributor to New England Kitchen Magazine, and gave directions for a cheese salad that she made by adding graunalted gelatin to a boiled dressing, then folding in whipped cream and grated cheese, and molding the mixture in egg cups for individual services."
---Perfection Salad: Women and Cooking at the Turn of the Century, Laura Shapiro [North Point Press:New York] 1986 (p. 96-99)

"In 1905, Charles Knox ran a recipe contest that launched the Age of the Molded Salad. Mrs. John Cooke of New Castle, Pennsylvania, submitted her recipe for Perfection Salad, a tart gelatin mold strews with bits of cabbage, celery, and sweet red pepper, which the judges--Fannie Farmer among them--awarded third prize...Knox printed the recipe in its next recipe booklet and continuted to offer it in subsequesnt pamphlets printed throughout the twentieth century, updating it now and then to suit the times. Perfection Salad inspired cooks as few recipes have. And the rise of Jell-O at approximately the same time, the proliferation of its fruity flavors, and the industry of its advertising staff in "papering" the country with Jell-O recipes fueled the molded-salad boom. Soon every woman had her particular favorites...Only in the late 60s did molded salads fall from favor and then mostly in sophisticated metropolitan areas where chefs were beginning to experiment with composed salads and an exotic new palette of greens."
---The American Century Cookbook: The Most Popular Recipes of the 20th Century, Jean Andrewson [Clarkson Potter:New York] 1997 (p. 284-5)
[NOTE: This book reprints the original entry recipe and letter submitted by Mrs. Cooke (p. 286).]

Perfection Salad, "Dainty Desserts for Dainty People," Knox Gelatine Company company brochure

Perfection Salad
, U.S. Navy (portioned for 100 men)

"Perfection Salad

1/3 c. Dilute vinegar
1 1/3 c. Boiling water
3/4 Teaspoon Salt
1/3 c. Sugar
1 1/3 tb. Gelatine
1/3 c. Cold water
Juice of 1 lemon
2/3 c. Cabbage, shredded finely
1 1/2 c. Celery, diced
1/8 c. Sweet red pepper
1. Mix boiling water, vinegar, salt and sugar; heat to boiling point.
2. Soften gelatine in cold water; dissolve in boiling liquid.
3. Add lemon juice; strain, chill, stirring occasionally. 4. When slightly thickened, add vegetables.
5. Turn into moistened moulds; chill.
Note.--The jelly mixture of this salad may be used for moulding other vegetables, as asparagus and pimiento, beets and celery, carrots and peas. Vegetable stock may be used as part of the liquid in the jelly."
---The Canadian Cookbook, Nellie Lyle Pattinson, Revised and Enlarged Edition [Ryerson Press:Toronto] 1947 (p. 205)

Perfection Salad
, Knox On Camera Recipes

Potato salad
Potatoes (a new world food) were introduced to Europe by Spanish explorers in the 16th century. By the end of the century many countries had adopted this new vegetable and integrated it into their cuisines. Preparation methods and recipes were developed according to local culinary traditions.

Arnold Shircliffe, executive chef of Chicago's legendary Edgewater Beach Hotel, traced the origin of the potato salad to the 16th century. These are his notes:
"Early potato salad: John Gerrard in 1597 writes about potatoes and their virtues and said that "they are sometimes boiled and sopped in wine, by others boiled with prunes, and likewise others dress them (after roasting them in the ashes) in oil, vinegar and salt, every man according to his own taste. However they be dressed, they comfort, nourish and strengthen the body." This is one of the first potato salads mentioned in any book."
---Edgewater Beach Hotel Salad Book, Arnold Shircliffe [Hotel Monthly Press:Evanston IL] 1928 (p. 231)

Potato salad-type recipes were introduced to America by European settlers, who again adapted traditional foods to local ingredients. This accounts for regional potato salad variations in the United States. Potato salad, as we know it today, became popular in the second half of the 19th century. Cold potato salads evolved from British and French recipes. Warm potato salads followed the German preference for hot vinegar and bacon dressings served over vegetables.

Print evidence confirms recipes for potato salads were often included in 19th century American cooking texts. These recipes had many different names. The Cassells Dictionary of Cookery [London:1875?] contains three recipes for potato salad, one without notes [presumably British or American], a French recipe and a German recipe.The French recipe is very similar to the first and is also served cold. The German recipe required bacon. Early cold potato salad recipes often called for "French dressing" (Our notes on French dressing here ). Some recipes specifically indicate this is an economy dish, "a good way to dispose of leftover potatoes." During the 1940s mayonnaise began to supplant French dressing as the congealer of choice. It is interesting to note that during both World Wars recipes for German-style potato salad did not bear that country's moniker. They were simply listed as "hot potato salad."

This is what the food writers have to say:
"Potato salad. A cold or hot side dish made with potatoes, mayonnaise, and seasonings. It became very popular in the second half of the nineteenth century and is a staple of both home and food-store kitchens. Hot potato salad, usually made with bacon, onion, and vinegar dressing, was associated with German immigrants and therefore often called "German potato salad."
---Encyclopedia of American Food and Drink, John F. Mariani [Lebhar-Friedman:New York] 1999 (p. 253)

"There seems to be no dogma concerning the origins of potato salad, but Germany is a good place to begin. As a country with lots of potatoes and lots of recipes for potatoes, Germany almost certainly was among the first to look at cooked small new potatoes or cut chunks of larger spuds and imagine them blanketed with dressing. The dressing they came up with was a classic. Kin to the heated dressing used to wilt spinach salad, this one thrilled German taste buds, raised as they were on sauerkraut and sauerbraten with vinegar bite. Some versions featured a little coarse mustard, others cut the sour with a little sugar, and most added bacon and even its flavorful drippings. By the time the notion of potato salad reached France, vinegar wasn't quite good enough. The French demanded full-scale vinaigrette, and it was no sweat to satisfy their demands. Whenever you see something called "French potato salad," it's a safe bet you're in for potatoes (and probably other vegetables, too) in a light vinaigrette, with Dijon mustard and sweet tarragon.

When potato salad caught on in the United States, in the second half of the 19th century, it was probably by way of German immigrants. To this day, most people who know how to cook, or at least know how to eat, understand that "German potato salad" will be served warm, will feature no mayonnaise, and will be pleasantly tart with vinegar.The American idea of making potato salad with mayonnaise has no recorded history - but then again, neither does the idea of mayonnaise itself. Clearly a sauce created in France using egg yolks, oil and either lemon juice or vinegar, little is clear after that. Virtually every French bible of cuisine explains the name differently, ranging from a link to "Magon," the Carthaginian general who helped his brother Hannibal battle the Romans," to a possible misspelling of "Bayonnaise," hailing from the town of Bayonne in France - and later, less romantically, New Jersey.

However it got the name, mayonnaise became the favored dressing for American potato salad for more "There seems to be no dogma concerning the origins of potato salad, but Germany is a good place to begin. As a country with lots of potatoes and lots of recipes for potatoes, Germany almost certainly was among the first to look at cooked small new potatoes or cut chunks of larger spuds and imagine them blanketed with dressing. The dressing they came up with was a classic. Kin to the heated dressing used to wilt spinach salad, this one thrilled German taste buds, raised as they were on sauerkraut and sauerbraten with vinegar bite. Some versions featured a little coarse mustard, others cut the sour with a little sugar, and most added bacon and even its flavorful drippings. By the time the notion of potato salad reached France, vinegar wasn't quite good enough. The French demanded full-scale vinaigrette, and it was no sweat to satisfy their demands. Whenever you see something called "French potato salad," it's a safe bet you're in for potatoes (and probably other vegetables, too) in a light vinaigrette, with Dijon mustard and sweet tarragon.

When potato salad caught on in the United States, in the second half of the 19th century, it was probably by way of German immigrants. To this day, most people who know how to cook, or at least know how to eat, understand that "German potato salad" will be served warm, will feature no mayonnaise, and will be pleasantly tart with vinegar.The American idea of making potato salad with mayonnaise has no recorded history - but then again, neither does the idea of mayonnaise itself. Clearly a sauce created in France using egg yolks, oil and either lemon juice or vinegar, little is clear after that. Virtually every French bible of cuisine explains the name differently, ranging from a link to "Magon," the Carthaginian general who helped his brother Hannibal battle the Romans," to a possible misspelling of "Bayonnaise," hailing from the town of Bayonne in France - and later, less romantically, New Jersey. However it got the name, mayonnaise became the favored dressing for American potato salad for more than a century. Its sweet, creamy mouthfeel served up just the right delight when wrapped around solid, dependable American potatoes."
---"A world of potato salads; Labor Day tradition gets global makeover," John DeMers, The Houston Chronicle, August 29, 2001 (Food: p. 1)

"Despite its popularity in this country, potato salad is not an all-American creation. Potato salad is said to be of Teutonic origin, prepared when boiled potatoes were tossed with oil, vinegar and seasonings, a dish known now as German potato salad. The French, Norwegians, Swedes, Russians and Italians all have their own versions. Germans make a marvelous warm potato salad to which they add tiny bits of fresh tomato and red and green bell peppers, then toss the whole concoction with a warm bacon and onion dressing. The Greeks also prefer warm potato salad, with garlic, olive oil and lemon. Italian potato salad is apt to have ample amounts of fresh parsley, often chunks of salami and is dressed with an olive oil and vinegar dressing. American potato salad is heavier and heartier than European versions. Some people like lots of additions such as onion, sweet pickles, celery, hard-cooked eggs, pimento, chives, olives and parsley."
---"Potato salad revisited," St. Louis Post-Dispatch, August 28, 1989 (Food p. 1)

Sample recipes:

[1633] Potato
---Herball or General Historie of Plants, John Gerard [London]

[1863] "The same [potatoes], in salad
Cook them [potatoes] without water in an oven, or hot cinders, if handy; then peel and cut them in thin slices; place them in a salad dish, season with chopped parsley, sweet oil, vinegar, salt, and pepper, and serve. You may used butter instead of oil if you serve warm; you may also add slices of beets, and of pickled cucumbers, according to taste."
---What to Eat and How to Cook It, Pierre Blot [Appleton and Company:New York] (p. 194)

"Potato Salad.

When materials for a salad are scarce, this is a good way of disposing of cold potatoes. Slice them, and dress them with oil, vinegar, salt, and pepper, precisely like any other salad; adding a little chives, or an onion, and parsley chopped fine. If oil is not agreeable, use cream or a little melted butter."
---Jennie June's American Cookery Book, Mrs. J. S. Croly [Excelsior Publishing:New York] 1878 (p. 122)

[1884] " Potato salad (cold)
French & boiled dressings
---Boston Cooking School Cook Book, Mrs. D.A. Lincoln [page through site for complete recipes]

[1908] "Potato salad
The best potato salad is made from waxy yellow potatoes, cooked with their jackets on, the peeled, cut up while still warm and dressed before they become cold. Put the potatoes into a salad bowl, then pour over them a little hot water, or, better still, a little hot broth from the soup kettle. Season it at once with salt, pepper, and for every teaspoonful vinegar use four spoonfuls olive oil. Add as you like chopped onion, parsley, chives or celery, toss without breaking the potatoes, then set in the ice box to chill. When ready to serve put into individual lettuce leaves or a salad bowl lined with lettuce, and on top put a spoonful of boiled dressing as a garnish."
---New York Evening Telegram Cook Book, Emma Paddock Telford (p. 98)
[NOTE: This book does not contain a recipe for titled "boiled dressing." It includes a recipe for cooked salad dressing which is boiled (p. 93). Indgredients are: egg yolks, dry mustard, salt, butter, hot vinegar, and cream. This dressing is to be stored in a cool place. No suggestions regarding serving temperature. A separate recipe for mayonnaise appears on page 94.

[1946] "Potato Salad with Mayonnaise
Boil in their jackets in a covered saucepan until they are tender:
Chill them for several hours, peel and slice them. Marinate them well with:
French dressing
Soup stock or canned boullion.
Chop or slice and add:
Hard-cooked eggs
Season the salad well with:
A few grains of cayenne
Horseradish (optional)
After 1 hour or more add:
Mayonnaise dressing, boiled salad dressing or sour cream or cream."
---The Joy of Cooking, Irma S. Rombauer [Bobbs Merrill:Indianapolis] 1946 (p. 407)

New York style (aka deli style) potato salad
The general concensus of online recipes is that New York Style potato salad is served cold and has a mayo/vinegar dressing. Culinary evidence suggests this recipe has British or French roots. The Brooklyn Cookbook, Lyn Stallworth and Rod Kennedy, Jr. [Knopf:New York] 1994 notes Kosher deli potato salad never contains milk (p. 175). A recipe for Deli potato salad is also found on this page.

Recommended reading: The Potato: How the Humble Spud Rescued the Western World, Larry Zukerman [North Point Press:New York] 1998.

Taco salad
Taco salad is a modern variation on the traditional Tex-Mex dish. These recipes begin to show up in American cookbooks/magazines in the 1960s.

"Taco Salad. This salad arrived with the Tex-Mex fast-food franchises, which began to pepper the country in the 60s...The man who whetted our appetite for "hot and spicy" was Glen Bell, who opened the first "Taco Bell" in Downey, California. That was 1962. Did Taco Bell originate the Taco Salad? I've been unable to proved it did. Or didn't. The first recipe I could find for Taco Salad appeared in the May 1968 issue of Sunset."
---American Century Cookbook: The Most Popular Recipes of the 20th Century, Jean Anderson [Clarkson Potter:New York] 1997 (p. 305)

Here is the recipe from Sunset Magazine, May 1968, p. 167

"Taco Salad
1 lb lean ground beef
1/4 c. finely chopped onion
1/2 tsp salt
2 tsp chili pepper
1 can (8oz) can tomato sauce
1 medium head iceberg lettuce
1/2 c shredded Cheddar cheese
2 medium sized tomatoes, peeled and cut in wedges
1 avocado, peeled and sliced
1 and 1/2 c. corn chips or tortilla chips

Fry meat and onion over medium-high heat; stir until the meat is crumbly and has lost its pinkness and the onion is tender. about 7 minutes. Stir in the salt, chili powder and tomato sauce; keep hot.

Shred the lettuce and arrange on individual salad plates. Top each with the meat mixture and sprinkle with cheese. Arrange on each salad tomato wedges and avocado slices, if used. Place corn chips around edges of salads and serve immediately. Makes 4 servings.
AR, Alhambra, CA
If you like more hotly seasoned Mexican foods, you might add chopped canned green chilis or liquid hot pepper seasoning to taste; stir into the meat mixture with the tomato sauce."

Related dishes? Seven layer taco dip & Taco soup.

Tossed salad

When and where did tossed or mixed salad begin? Excellent question. The answer depends (in part) on how you define tossed greens/mixed salad. Food historians tell us rudimentary mixed (several types of greens) salads were known to neolithic peoples. Salads composed of fresh mixed greens dressed in vinegar and spices were enjoyed by Ancient Romans. This culinary tradition survived from European Medieval times to the very end of the 19th century. Some cuisines preferred warm salads, others, cold. In the late 19th century (USA) the domestic science/home economics movement took hold. They considered tossed plates of mixed greens "messy" and eschewed them in favor of "orderly presentations." Salad ingredients were painstakingly separated, organized, and "glued together" with mayonnaise or gelatin. Molded gelatin salads proliferated because they offered maximum control.

Enter: tossed salad
Our survey of American cookbooks and newspapers confirms mixed, tossed salads regained popularity in the 1930s. Home economists promoted fresh vegetables as important (inexpensive) dietary supplement during the Great Depression. Coincidentally? This is when atrfully crafted large wooden salad bowls were introduced. Overnight? Tossing salad in front of company became trendy. Wooden salad bowls remain popular today.

"A Salad Bowl Salad

Don't always hide the secrets of your salad making within the four walls of your kitchen. Sometimes carry all the "fixins" right to the table in a big roomy wooden or china bowl or even a gay kitchen mixing bowl and toss and serve there. To the greens in the salad bowl--a mixture of them is always nice--you may add rosy red radishes, whole or in slices; crisp cucumber, thinly sliced; tender young scallions; asparagus, cooked, chilled and cut in suitable pieces; thin green pepper rings; crisp celery; ripe, green or stuffed olives; or tomatoes, cubed or sliced. A lone strip of cold bacon may be cut in small pieces and added. And toss in that one cold potato, cut in cubes, or the spoonful of peas or string beans, or the one remaining stalk of asparagus. Slices of hard-cooked egg or pieces of cold meat, chicken or fish, contribute to a hearty salad too. And cheese either cubed, sliced or broken in pieces is always a welcome addition to the salad bowl. The mellow flavor of avocado adds much to the fruit salad look especially when raw strawberries, halves of cooked prunes, sections of orange, pineapple or grapefruit, fresh or canned are combined with it! And don't froget the grapes. Such combinations as the above tossed and turned in a well-seasoned French or Mayonnaise dressing make a salad fit for the gods. And don't forget to cut a peeled bud of garlic rubbed on the inside of your salad bowl or dropped into your French dressing for a short time is a favorite seasoning to many."
---Good Housekeeping Cook Book, Dorothy B. Marsh et al [Good Housekeeping:New York] 2nd edition, 1934 (p. 60)

Tuna salad
Culinary evidence (old cookbooks, menus etc.) confirms meat (ham) and mayonnaise-type salads were popular in America from colonial times present. These were culinary traditions brought to our shores by European (esp. German) settlers. Lobster and
chicken salads were most common and extremely popular in the mid-late 19th century. Tuna salad is an early twentieth century recipe. Why? Because canned tuna was first introduced and mass marketed to the American public in 1903. American cookbooks in the 1930s and 1940s offer tuna salad recipes as alternatives to salads made from chicken and turkey. One might conclude this fishy substitution was not immediately embraced on its own merits.

"Tuna Salad Popular. In California the tuna is beign introduced generallly in the best restaurants, not only because it is new, but becuase people are beginning to value it for what it is. Tuna salads are getting to be popular. The housekeeper can prepare the fish in a dozen different ways."
---"Tuna Now Popular Fish Food," Christian Science Monitor, February 19, 1913 (p. 11)

Here is an early recipe:

Tuna fish salad

1 can Tuna fish
shredded lettuce
salt and red pepper to taste
1 tablespoonful vinegar
2 tablespoonfuls lemon-juice
Mayonnaise dressing
1 tablespoonful capers
1 hard-cooked egg
2 or 3 stuffed olives.
Line a salad dish with shredded lettuce. Break the fish into pieces and place it on top of the lettuce. Mix the salt, red pepper, lemon-juice, and vinegar toghether and pour over the fish. Chill, and when ready to serve, decorate with the capers, slices of hard-cooked egg, and the stuffed olives. Service with mayonnaise dressing. Another method.--Flake one can of Tuna fish with a silver fork, add one and one-half cupful of diced celery and one-half cupful of broken English walnut meats, mix with mayonnaise--or boiled dressing. Serve on crisp lettuce leaves."
---Salads, Sandwiches and Chafing Dish Recipes, Marion H. Neil [1916] (p. 245-6)

Waldorf salad
"Waldorf Salad...The dish was supposedly created by maitre d'hotel Oscar Tschirky of the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel in New York City, which opened in 1893. By 1896, when Tschirky compiled The Cook Book by 'Oscar of the Waldorf,' the recipe--given without comment--called for only apples, celery, and mayonnaise, and the salad later became a staple item in most hotel dining rooms and other restaurants. At some point in the next two decades chopped walnuts were added, for they are listed by George Rector in the ingredients for the salad in The Rector Cook Book, which appeared in 1928, after which walnuts became standard in the recipe, including the one give in the Waldorf-Astoria Cookbook [1981], by Ted James and Rosalind Cole."
---Encyclopedia of American Food and Drink, John F. Mariani [Lebhar-Friedman:New York] 1999 (p. 343)

"Waldorf salad...Oscar Tschirky...created this salad for a 'society supper' to which 1,500 persons came from Boston, Baltimore, and Philadelphia...For Sheila Hibben, food editor of The New Yorker, his creation was a mixed blessing. She thought his combination of apples and mayonnaise headed American housewives in the wrong direction 'and bred the sorry mixture of sweet salads' that remain very much on the gastronomical scene..."
---American Food: The Gastronomic Story, Evan Jones [Vintage:New York] 1981, 2nd ed. (p. 398)

"This American classic first was introduced at the old Waldorf Hotel in New York. Oddly, it was an off-the-cuff creation by the maitre d'hotel, Oscar Tschirky, rather than an inspiration of the chef."
---"Apples fill a variety of culinary needs and are available all year long," Peter Kump, Chicago Tribune, February 15, 1990, 11A

The original recipe

Waldorf salad
Peel two raw apples and cut them into small pieces, say about half and inch square, also cut some celery the same way, and mix it with the apple. Be very careful not to let any seeds of the apples be mixed with it. The salad must be dressed with a good mayonnaise.
---The Cookbook by "Oscar" of the Waldorf, Oscar Tschirky [Saafield Publishing Company:Chicago] 1908 , copyright 1896 (p. 433)

Watergate salad & cake
Pistachios have been enjoyed since the beginning of time. They have generally considered luxury items. In the 20th century, technological advances made them more accessible to home cooks. Culinary evidence confirms these nuts were most often used to flavor ice creams and parfaits. They were also sometimes used in pates, salads (toppings, molded in combination with other ingredients gelatine), baked goods, and candy. Notes on pistachios and their use in cookery here.

Although salads and cakes made flavored with pistachios date back to the early 20th century, culinary evidence connects the recipes we know today as Watergate Salad and Watergate Cake to the Kraft Company, dating from the mid 1970s. Why the Kraft connection? Both recipes use pistachio instant pudding mix, which was introduced by Kraft Foods in 1975.

Why Watergate?
The answer seems obvious to everyone who knows a little about American political events during that time period. Interestingly enough, it has yet to be confirmed. The Kraft does not take credit for the name. In fact? No one does.

We do know that in 1973 two tongue-in-cheek "Watergate" cookbooks were published: The Watergate Cookbook, N.Y. Alplaus [Emporium Publications:Charlestown MA] and The Watergate Cookbook (Or, Who's in the Soup?), The Commitee to Write the Cookbook [New Lone Star Press:Cambridge MA]. These were apparently inpired by Tom Donnelly's article "Serve Hot, The County the Silver," published earlier that year in the Washington Post. Neither of these books, nor Donnelley's article, contain recipes for Watergate Salad or Watergate Cake.

"We developed the recipe for Pistachio Pineapple Delight," says Pat Risso of Kraft Corporate Affairs. "It was in 1975, the same year that pistachio pudding mix came out."The company, however, didn't suggest serving the dessert as a salad or change the name. As a matter of fact, the company didn't refer to it at all as Watergate Salad until consumers started requesting a recipe for Watergate Salad. The answer from an e-mail query to got a little warmer. "According to Kraft Kitchens, when the recipe for Pistachio Pineapple Delight was sent out, a Chicago food editor renamed it Watergate Salad to promote interest in the recipe when she printed it in her column," the response came back. A call to Carol Haddix, food editor of the Chicago Tribune, got a quick response. "Never heard of it," she said. A half dozen calls to former Chicago food editors, publicists and retired Kraft Kitchens personnel also hit dead ends."
---THE PROOF IS IN THE PUDDING; CRASHING WATERGATE, Louis Mahoney; The Richmond Times Dispatch, August 4, 1999 (p. F-1)

Watergate Salad was reportedly named by a Chicago food editor for an article, but neither the article nor editor has been tracked down. The full name of the cake is Watergate cake with coverup icing."
---TRIVIA, ROGERS CADENHEAD, Knight Ridder Newspapers, The Record (Bergen County, NJ) March 15, 2000

"New flavors in 1976 were Americana Rice pudding and Pistachio instant pudding. Popular recipes were Pudding in a Cloud and, in 1981, Watergate Salad (Pistachio and Pineapple)." The history of Jell-O, Kraft Food Company."
---from Kraft's old Web site (not included in current pages)

Of course, very few recipes are *invented* overnight. They are usually variations on popular food that have beens served for years.

"Pistachio nut--A native of central Asia and member of the cashew family, the pistachio nut...has been cultivated for some 3,000 years and has a long history of popularity in the Mediterranean world. But it was not until the 1930s with the advent of vending machines, that pistachio nuts (also called pistache) imported from Italy became something of a rage in the United States as a snack food."
---The Cambridge World History of Food, Kenneth F. Kiple and Kriemhild Conee Ornelas, Volume 2, (p.1835)

"It was in 1929 that American plant scientist William E. Whitehouse spent a lonely six months in Persia (modern day Iran), collecting seed and sifting through piles of produce to find the most distinctive pistachios. He returned carrying a burlap sack 20 pounds heavy with seed."
California Pistachio Commission

"[1901] Dole's company becomes Hawaiian Pineapple Company and is incorporated in this year. James Dole becomes known as "The Pineapple King," because he was able to successfully grow and harvest this crop that had failed so many others. His company puts canned pineapple in every grocery store in the country and makes the name "Hawaiian" almost synonymous with "pineapple."
Dole Company

Molded salads combining all sorts of ingredients (especially mini-marshmallows) were all the rage in the 1920s. The history of Jell-0. Jell-O instant puddings were test marketed in 1950.

The oldest recipe we found specifically titled "Watergate Salad" is this:

"Watergate Salad

1 (20-ounce) can crushed pineapple (undrained)
1 box instant pistachio pudding mix
1 1/2 cups small marshmallows
1 (9-ounce) box whipped topping mix
1 cup or less walnuts or pecans
Mix undrained pineapple with pudding by pouring pudding into pineapple. Stir. Add rest of ingredients. Stir by hand. Chill before serving. C.K."
---"Anne's Reader Exchange," Washington Post, November 13, 1975 (p. C17)


"A new Watergate crisis is sweeping the Washington area, but this time only homemakers and a few business men seem to care... The crisis stems from the growing popularity of a recipe for a concoction called "Watergate Cake," which demands large quantities of powdered pistachio pudding mix, both in the layer cake and in its light green icing. Apparently, only one firm, Royal Pudding, a division of Standard Brands, Inc., distributes pistachio pudding in the Washington area. Supermarkets haven't been able to get engouh to cope with the demands, which began around Thanksgiving time and was very heavy at Christmas. Store shelves have been regularly stripped of the mix the same day it is displayed...If the sales spurt is not directly attributable to the popularity of Watergate Cake... "The we don't knoe why this product has suddenly taken off. It's been just phenomenal..." Barry Scher, a spokesman for Giant Foods, placed the blame not only on the recipe, but also on a coincidental shortage of pistachio nuts. "That was about five months abo, the spokesman said, "And as it ended, this recipe began circulating around. We were bombarded. We hate to admit it, but we just can't keep the mix on the shelf. The onset of Watergate cake mania--and the resulting effort to close the supply-demand gap --has tested old friendships and challenged the ingenuity and competitive instincts of many a Washington-area homemaking... No one, meanwhile, seems able to pinpoint the origin of this Watergate, the recipe for which has appeared in a number of newspapers, including the Washington Post. Nor can anyone explain how the cake got its name or why pistachio is the main flavoring. One current explanation leans on the presence of crushed walnuts in the cake--"bugs" in the parlance of kids. Like the Giant spokesman, Harold Giesinger, proprietor of the Watergate Pastry shop, had no thoughts on where the recipe originated-- except that it was not with his bakery. "We haven't invented anything to which we'd attach a name like that," he said. Nor, he added, does his shop rely on pistachio as a key ingredient in any of its products. "A private source may have put it together, " he said of the recipe. Wherever Watergate Cake started, the pudding firm would like more more problems like it. Gagan suspects some people have been buying more pistachio pudding mix than they'll ever use, simply becuase it's hard to get...Further relief is in sight. Another manufacturer, General Foods, scanning the Watergate-assisted pistachio market, has decided to jump in. Its version is expected to hit the supermarket shelves in March..."
---"A Watergate Cake Mania," Alexander Sullivan, Washington Post, February 26, 1976 (p. B2) [Recipe included, see below 1976]

"According to my sister-in-law who lives in Waynesboro, Virginia, the name of the cake became prominent in that part of the country because--Nixon liked Pistachio Nuts, hence (and a rather far-fetched reasoning) the name for the Watergate Cake, because synonymous with--Pistachio Nuts, Mrs. Nixon and Watergate. I had neither heard of Pistachio Pudding or the Watergate Cake until last fall we stopped to visit them, and she had the cake all ready for us to eat. However, her recipe is much different than the one printed in the Washington Post Thursday in your column. Sincerely yours, Virginia K. Wiszneauckas, Wheaton, Md." ---"That Cake," Washington Post, March 11, 1976 (p. VA2)

The earliest recipe we find for pistachio cake also employs a packaged cake mix. Note! This is "mock pistachio"!


Into [angel food mix] cake batter, fold a few drops green food color, 1/4 teasp. Almond extract, 3/4 minced, blanched almonds."
---Good Housekeeping Cook Book, Dorothy B. Marsh [Good Housekeeping:New York] 1962 (p. 457)

Compare with these:

"Watergate Cake

1 box white cake mix
1 box pistachio instant pudding
1 cup vegetable oil
1 cup club soda
3 eggs
1/2 cup chopped walnuts
Mix all ingredients well (4 to 4 minutes). Bake in 12-by-9-inch greased pan for 45 minutes at 350 degrees.

Topping for Cake
1 box pistachio instant pudding
1/4 cup cold milk
1 (9-ounce) box whipped topping mix
Nut meats and maraschino cherries
Beat milk into instant pudding mix. Prepare topping mix according to instructions on box. Fold into pudding mixture. Spread oncake and top with nuts and cherries. C.S.R. Arlington." ---"Anne's Reader Exchange," Washington Post, November 13, 1975 (p. C17)

Watergate Cake

1 (3 1/2 ounce) box instant pistachio pudding
1 box white cake mix (any brand)
1 cup vegetable oil
1/2 cup walnuts
1 cup ginger ale
3 eggs
Mix together--any order-bake at 350 degrees--30 to 40 minutes. It isn't necessary to grease the pan.

One large or two small containers frozen whipped topping
1 box instant pistachio pudding
1 1/2 cups milk
Mix together until smooth. Top off with nuts, coconuts or cherries. Lovely to look at and very moist."
---"A Watergate Cake Mania," Alexander Sullivan, Washington Post, February 26, 1976 (p. B2)

"Here is a fantastic cake recipe that I like to prepare for special occasions," writes Nels Wenman. "It was sent to me by a cousin in Arizona."
Watergate Cake with Cover-Up Icing
1 (18 1/2-ounce) package white cake mix
1 (3 1/2-ounce) package instant pistachio pudding mix
3 eggs, unbeaten 3/4 cup oil
1 cup lemon-lime carbonated beverage
Cover-Up Icing
3/4 cup shredded coconut
1 cup finely chopped pecans
Combine cake mix, pudding mix, eggs, oil and lemon-lime in a bowl. Beat until well-blended. Pour into a greased and floured 13X9-inch pan and bake at 350 degrees 45 minutes. Cool. Spread with Cover-Up Icing and sprinkle with coconut and pecans.

Cover-Up Icing
2 (1 1/2-ounce) envelopes nondairy whipped topping mix
1 1/2 cups milk
1 (3 1/2-ounce) package instant pistachio pudding mix
Beat whipped topping mix, milk and pudding mix together until smooth and thick."
---"My Best Recipe," Los Angeles Times, June 17, 1976 (p. H6)

Where do pistachios come from?
"Pistachio, Pistacia vera, a small tree native to parts of West Asia and the Levant between Turkey and Afghanistan, bears nuts which have for long been highly prized. The earliest traces of pistachios being eaten in Turkey and the Middle East date back to about 7000BC; and the species has been cultivated and improved during serveral millenia...Pistachio trees were introduced from Asia to Europe in the 1st century AD, by the Romans."
---Oxford Companion to Food, Alan Davidson [Oxford University Press:Oxford] 1999 (p. 610)

"Pistachio...The word originated in Persian as pistah, and reached the West via Greek pistakion. English originally borrowed it from French as pistace."
---An A-Z of Food & Drink, John Ayto [Oxford University Press:Oxford] 2002 (p. 258)

"Pistachio nut. A native of central Asia and member of the cashew family, the pistachio nut has been cultivated for some 3,000 years and has a long history of popularity in the Mediterranean world. But it was not until the 1930s, with the advent of vending machines, that pistachio nuts (also called pistache) imported from Italy became something of a rage in the United States as a snack food...Following World War II, the evergreen trees that bear pistachios were imported to California, and although the imported nuts are still dyed, most American-grown pistachios are sold without dye, in naturally tan shells."
---Cambridge World History of Food, Kenneth F. Kiple & Kriemhild Conee Ornelas [Cambridge University Press:Cambridge] 2000 Volume 2 (p. 1835)

"The dying of pistachios is not a Middle Eastern tradition but is said to have originated with a Brooklyn street vendor named Zaloom who colored his pistachios red to distinguish them from his competitors. The idea caught on--especially in the East--that most pistachios used to be dyed red. This is no longer true, with only about 15 percent of those sold today so colored."
---Encyclopedia of American Food and Drink, John F. Mariani [Lebhar-Friedman:New York] 1999 (p. 243)

Pistachio cookery
"This pistachio, with its unique color and mild but distinctive flavour, has always been a luxury, costing three or four times as much as other nuts. It is generally eaten roasted and salted as a dessert nut. In cooking it is often used as a garnish or decoration, both in sweet and savory dishes. For example, it figures in in some of the finest pilaf dishes and in European pates and brawns which are served in slices, so that the nuts appear as attractive green specs or slivers."
---Oxford Companion to Food, Alan Davidson [Oxford University Press:Oxford] 1999 (p. 610)

"In Mediterranean and Oriental cooking, pistachios are used in poultry sauces and stuffings and also in hash. In classic cuisine they garnish galantines, brawn (head cheese) and mortadella. In India pistachio puree is used to season rice and vegetables. Pistachios go best with veal, pork and poultry. Their green color (often accentuated artificially) makes them popular for creams (especially for filling cakes, such as the galacien) and for ice creams and ice-cream desserts. In confectionery it is especially associated with nougat."
---Larousse Gastronomique, Completely revised and updated [Clarkson Potter:New York] 2001 (p. 900)

arugula & rocket...chicory...iceberg lettuce... lamb's lettuce...romaine lettuce...water cress

The food historians and linguists tell us lettuce was [most likely] first cultivated by the ancient Greeks, possibly as early as the 6th century BC. There is some controversy regarding the date because there were several ancient plants fitting the description of lettuce at that time.

"Wild lettuce was gathered for millennia by hunter-gatherers and was still being gathered by humans at the time of the ancient Greeks. The latter probably began its cultivation, which was continued by the Roman. The first cultivated letuuce was Lactuca serriola, which is native to the Mediterranean region."
---The Cambridge World History of Food, Kenneth F. Kiple and Kriemhild Conee Ornelas [Cambridge University:Cambridge] 2000, Volume Two (p. 1801)

"The ancient Greeks and Romans cultivated the lettuce, especially as a salad. In the East its cultivation possible dates from an earlier epoch. Nevertheless it does not appear, from the original common names both in Asia and Europe, that this plant was generally or very anciently cultivated. There is no Sanskrit nor Hebrew name known, nor any in the reconstructed Aryan tongue. A greek name exists, tridax; Latin, latuca; Persian and Hindu, kahn; and the analogous Arabic form chuss or chass. The Latin form exists also, slightly modified, in the Slav and Germanic languages, which may indicate either that the Western Aryans diffused the plant, or that its cultivation spread with its name at a later date from the south to the north of Europe. Dr. Bretscheider has confirmed by supposition that the lettus is not very ancient in China, and that it was introduced there from the West. He says that the first work in which it is mentioned dates from A.D. 600 to A.D. 900."
---Origin of Cultivated Plants, Alphonse de Candole [Hafner Publishing Company:New York] 1964 (p. 96)

"Other new Roman arrivals [to Britain] were the garden varieties of a number of green vegetables, among them cabbage, beet, mallows, orache (atriplex), lettuce and endive..."
---Food and Drink in Britain From the Stone Age to the 19th Century, C. Anne Wilson [Academy Broadway:Chicago IL] 1991 (p. 195)

"Lettuce..was introduced to Britain by the Romans, who commonly ate it cooked rather than raw. This tradition continued into and beyond the Middle Ages...but by the seventeeth century the memory of it was dying out (John his Aceteria is extravagant in his praise of lettuce as a raw salad vegetable, but of cooked lettuce he notes only as an afterthought."
---An A-Z of Food & Drink, John Ayto [Oxford University Press:Oxford] 2002 (p. 189)

Lettuce in America
"England had cultivated lettuce as of the fifteenth century, but Christopher Columbus may have been the first to bring it to America. Lettuce was grown only in home gardens until the twentienth century, when Americans' new appetite for salad made commercial production profitable."
---Encyclopedia of American Food & Drink, John F. Mariani [Lebhar-Friedman:New York] 1999 (p. 183)

"Both leaf and head lettuces were commonly grown in colonial and early American times. Lettuce was highly perishable and was available only locally in season. However, lettuce became more readily availble in the twentieth century with the development of crisphead lettuce (iceberg is the most familiar). With sturdy leaves forming a compact, round head, these lettuces can be transported over long distances without damage. Distributed by railroad from California and Arizona, lettuce becmae an important year-round food in America. During the 1920s and 1930s its production doubled."
---Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America, Andrew F. Smith editor [Oxford University Press:New York] 2004, Volume 2 (p. 32)

Romaine lettuce
Salads made with Romaine lettuce (also known as Cos lettuce) were known in the United States by 1880s. Romaine was used as both base and in combination with other leafy greens. Our cookbooks do not specify this type of lettuce but the recipes below do. Of course, this is not a definate indicator that Romaine was enjoyed by all classes of people in all parts of the country. We can presume Romaine was appreciated by the wealthy based on its appearance on a menu served at the Harvard Club's Dinner in 1895 (NYT, February 22, 1895, p. 3). NOTE: this Romaine and Lettuce salad was served in the classic European fashion, towards the end of the meal, just before the dessert course.

"Salad a la Romaine.

Freshen two heads of lettuce in plenty of cold water. When about to serve mix in a bowl three tablespoonfuls of oil, one of lemon juice, one-third of a small onion grated, inch of cayenne, white pepper and salt to taste, and a small pinch of powdered sugar: break the lettuce into the bowl; well mix, turn into the salatiere, garnish with hard-boiled eggs, and serve."
---"Receipts for the Table," New York Times, January 28, 1877 (p. 9)
[NOTE: This recipe does not specify the type of lettuce to be used. "Heads" imply standard USA lettuce, not the more leafy Romaine.]

"There is another kind [of lettuce], high in favor in Paris and in some localities in this country for its tenderness and delicate flavor, but not liked by marketmen, because it will not bear rough handling. The time will come, however, when there will be such a demand for this species that all first-class provision dealers will keep it. The French call it Romaine, and in this country it is sometimes called Roman lettuce. It does not head. The leaves are strng and not handsome whole; but one who uses the lettuce never wishes for any other."
---Miss Parloa's New Cook Book, a Guide to Marketing and Cooking, Maria Parloa [Estes and Lauriat::Boston MA] 1886 (p. 52)

Arugula & Rocket
Arugula (aka Rocket) is an "Old World" cruciferous plant. The leaves have been used for centuries in salads. They have a tangy, mustardy-flavor, which makes the salad interesting in flavor and texture.
Americans "discovered" this tasty green in the 1990s.

"The rocket is a Eurasian plant with spicily hot-tasting dandelion-shaped leaves that are used in salads. It has become much more widely known in Britain following the salad revolution of the late twentieth century. The name rocket comes via French roquette from Italian ruchetta, a diminutive form of ruca, which in turn comes from Latin eurca. This meant literally caterpillar', and was applied to the plant because of its hairy stems. It may have been derived from er, hedgehog'."
---An A to Z of Food and Drink, John Ayto [Oxford University Press:Oxford] 2002 (p. 284)

"Rocket, Eruca sativa, a plant which grows wild in Asia and the Mediterranean region, has been introduced elsewhere, including N. America (where it is known by its Italian name, arugula), and cultivated for use as a salad plant. Its flavour, akin to that of horseradish or some sorts of cress, is strong in mature leaves, so these are added to salads with discretion. Young leaves may be used freely. Their popularity as a smart ingredient in western restaurants may obscure then fact that they are grown and liked in some places, e.g. the north of Sudan...In classical Rome the plant was cultivated both for its leaves and for its seeds, used as a flavouring. The seeds can also be used to produce and oil."
---Oxford Companion to Food, Alan Davidson [Oxford University Press:Oxford] 1999 (p. 667)

"Arugula-Also known as "rocket" and "garden rocket," this native of Europe and western a cruciferous plant that has long provided tender, slightly bitter, mustard-flavoured greens for the salad bowls of southern Europeans and Italian-Americans. Lately, it has become widely available in the United States, where it has been naturalized. Its leaves resemble those of the radish, which is a close relative. The seeds of arugula are also eaten, and they yield an oil that is used for culinary puroses, as a lubricant, and in medicines."
---Cambridge World History of Food, Kenneth F. Kiple & Kriemhild Conee Orenlas [Cambridge University Press:Cambridge] 2000, Volume Two (p. 1722)

"Rocket, salad vegetable, one of the best native Mediterranean species. Rocket was grown in classical Greek kitchen gardens and was equally familiar to Romans. Apart from the use of the leaf, rocket seed is called for as a culinary spice in Apicus. Rocket had an enduring reputation among aphrodesiacs...Because of this reputation rocket was often served at dinners mixed with lettuce, an antaphrodesiac, so that their qualities would conteract one another."
---Food in the Ancient World From A to Z, Andrew Dalby [Routledge:London] 2003 (p. 282)

Arugula & Rocket in the USA
Based on the number of print newspaper references per decade "arugula" gained marked interest in the 1990s and became popular in the 2000s. The plant was known, but not particularly favored, from Colonial times forward. Presumably, this accounts for the dearth of references & recipes.

"Rocket: a rather coarse garden-plant whose young leaves are occasionally used as a pot-herb or for salads. The flowers resemble orange blossoms in odor."
---The Grocer's Encyclopedia, Artemas Ward [National Grocer:New York] 1911 (p. 532)

"B. Vulgaris...Rocket. Winter Cress. Yellow Rocket. Europe and temperate Asia. This herb of northern climates have been cultivated in England for a long time and as an early salad and also in Scotland, where the bitter leaves are eaten by some. In early times, rocket was held in some repute but is now banished from cultivation yet appears in gardens as a weed...Rocket is included in the list of American garden esculents by McMahon in 1806. In 1832, Bridgeman says winter cress is used as a salad in spring and autumn and by some boiled as a spinage."
---Sturtevant's Notes onf Edible Plants, edited by U.P. Hedrick, Report of the New York Agricultural Experiment Station for the Year 1919 II [J.B. Lyon Company:Albany NY] 1919 (p. 82)

"Roquette. This is a salad vegetable resembling Cress in taste. It is served as a salad in the same manner, and is very popular with the Creoles."
---The Original Picayune Creole Cook Book, 9th edition [Times-Picayune Publishing Co.:New Orleans LA] 1938 227)

"It would seem almost impossible that the most appealing and relatively abundant salad green could be available in New York and yet be relatively unknown. But there is one, and it leads to the suspicion that there may be more. The one in question has more names than Joseph's coat has colors. The fact of the matter is that this green with the pungent and fascinatinf flavor goes by different names from one market to the next. Ask Italian green-grocers for arugula, rucola or ruccoli; ask other markets for rouquette, rocket salad or, simply, rocket...Most Italian chefs know...that arugula or the secret ingredient in many of their salads-about-town. Considering the public unawareness of the plant, it has an astonishing availability...New York does not have a corner on the vegetable's availability in the United States. Rocket salad is tremendously popular in the Creole country of Louisiana."
---"Food News: A Green by Any Name," Craig Claiborne, New York Times May 24, 1960 (p. 33)

Salad green, cooked vegetable, and (when times are tough)
coffee substitue.

"Chicory. Semantic problems abound with chicory (Cichorium intybus)--also called succory, radicchio, and red chicory), endive...and escarole, which is the broad-leafed variety of endive. All three are members of the dandelion family, but there the resemblance ends. Cichoirum endivia, native to India, was the ancestor of endive and known to the Egyptians as well as to the ancient Greeks and Romans. By contrast, C. Indybus is native to Europe, but the names nonetheless remain confused. In the United States, chicory is generally called Belgian edive, although this is also referred to simply as endive. The French, too, call it endive...and radicchio is chicory's Italian name...Chicory as well as endive roots are ground to become a natural coffee substitute...or in addition to regular coffee for added flavor and reduced caffeine. However, the tight hearts of Belgian endive and radicchio are also attractive and slightly bitter ingredients in salads; in addition, their braised leaves can be a vegetable dish in their own right."
---Cambridge World History of Food, Kenneth F. Kiple and Kriemhild Conee Ornelas [Cambridge Unviersity Press:Cambridge] Volume Two, 2001 (p. 1753)

"Chicory...decribes a group of perennial cultivated plants developed from wild chicory, a common plant of Europe, W. Asia, and Africa...Chicory was used as a vegetable and for salad in classical Greece and Rome, but was not apparently cultivated. The leaves of the wild plant are not too bitter if gathered young. From the 16th century onwards modern cultivated forms, with larger and less bitter leaves, were developed...The practice of taking up chicory plants in the autumn, cutting off their leaves, and replanting the roots in a dark cellar so that they regrow small, white leaves originated in France. The original French variety called, like the wild plant, Barbe de Capucin is unusual in that the roots are replanted on their sides in angled banks and the shoots grow horizontally. Around 1850 a Belgian grower, experimenting with uses for old musroom compost, discovered the superior cigar-shaped form Witloof...The large-rooted variety of chicory which is used as a coffee substitute was developed in Holland during the second half of the 18th century, when coffee was newly fashionable and very expensive. All over Europe people experimented with substitutes: grains, figs, acorns, and all kinds of root, especially dandelion and chicory. Chicory was judged the most acceptable."
---Oxford Companion to Food, Alan Davidson [Oxford University Press:Oxford] 1999 (p. 167-8)

"Chicory can be served raw in salads--with vinaigrette and often with hard-boiled (hard cooked) eggs and any of the various ingredients used in winter salads, including beetroot (red beets), apples, nuts, cheese and orange or grapefruit quarters. For cooked dishes, chicory heads are braised and drained; they can then be coated with bechamel sauce, sprinkled with noisette butter, served with gravy or with plain butter and herbs topped with grated cheesse and browned, or made into a puree. They can be served as an accompaniement to roasts and poultry. They can also be braised, made into a chiffanade or prepared as fritters (espsecially when served with fish). As a main dish, chicory is braised rolled in slices of ham and coated with a port and raisin sauce, or stuffed (with a fatty or lean stuffing) and browned on top."
---Larousse Gastronomique, completely revised and updated [Clarkson Potter:New York] 2001 (p. 278)

"Chicory. American nomenclature is very confusing for this salad green called Cichorium intybus, with its curly leaves and bright blue flowers...Chicory is quite bitter and is often mixed with other salad greens. The same plant's roots are dried and ground into a granular powder, often referred to as "succory," that resembles coffee and is used as an additive to or substitute for real coffee in Creole and cajun cooking, a legacy of the French influence on these cuisines...Adding chicory to coffee began in New Orleans during the food-scarce Civil War."
---Encyclopedia of American Food and Drink, John F. Mariani [Lebhar-Friedman:New York] 1999 (p. 73-4)

Lamb's Lettuce (mache, cornsalad)
"Lamb's Lettuce is a small plant of the genus Valerianella with soft long roundish leaves eaten raw in salads. It has been known in Britain for many centuries (John Gerard mentions it in his Herbal, 1597), but it was only in the 1980s, whith an increasing interest in exploring a wider range of salad leaves, that it started to become widely available commercially (the French, who call it mache, have always known its worth). The origins of its name, which may be a translation of Latin latuca agnina, are not known for certain, but it presumably reflects a supposed partiality of lambs for the leaves. An alternative name, used particuarly for the wild variety, is corn salad, an allusion to the plant's commonly grown in corn fields."
---An A-Z of Food & Drink, John Ayto [Oxford University Press:Oxford] 2002 (p. 184)

""Cornsalad," so named because these plants with small, bluish flowers grow in cornfields, actully refers to any of several plants of the genus Valerianella...these European natives--found throughout North America as well--provide slightly bitter-tasting leaves that are much appreciated in salads. The various types of cornsalad were considered weeds until the seventeenth century, when they began to be cultivated, and cultivation doubtless accounts for the different varieties now identified... Common names and synonyms: European cornsalads, fat-hen, field salad, hog salad, lamb's-lettuce, lamb's quarter, mache...marsh salad."
---World History of Food, Kenneth F. Kiple & Kriemhild Conee Orenelas [Cambridge University Press:Cambridge] 2001, Volume Two (p. 1763)

"Lamb's Lettuce. A plant with rounded leaves in a rosette form, which is usually eaten raw in a salad. It is also France, as mache, doucette, valerianelle potagere, raiponce, and oreielle-de-lievre. It grows wild in fields, usually in autumn, but is cultivated in France from September to March and gives a good flavour to a winter salad. There are several varieties..."
---Larousse Gastronomique, completely revised and updated [Clarkson Potter:New York] 2001 (p. 668)

Caesar salad
Simple, elegant, inexpensive, and famous. What more could a chef ask for? American cookbooks confirm chefs were serving artfully cut lettuce coated in French dressing in fancy restaurants from the late 19th century forwards. What makes Caesar salad different? A memorable origination story (or two or three) and documented Hollywood flair.

"And now we come to it--the most talked-of salad of a decade, perhaps of the century. Like all recipes that have become widely known, several chefs and restaurateurs have claimed to have originated the salad. Actually many of them have had a hand in promoting it, though not necessarily as a Caesar. As for its origin, the best guess seems to be that the whole thing started in Tia Juana, during prohibition, but whether it was actually created by one named 'Caesar,' or just named for him, is a matter of considerable discussion. The salad is at its best when kept simple, but as it is invariably made at table, and sometimes by show-offs, it occasionally contains far too many ingredients."
---West Coast Cook Book, Helen Evans Brown, facsimile reprint [Cookbook Collectors Library] 1952 (p. 308)

Classic theory of origin:
"Caesar salad. A salad of romaine lettuce, garlic, olive oil, croutons, Parmesan cheese, Worcestershire sauce, and, often, anchovies. It was created by Caesar Cardini, an Italian immigrant who opened a series of restaurants in Tijuana, Mexico...On Fourth of July weekend in 1924 at Caesar's Palace, Cardini concocted the salad as a main course, arranging the lettuce leaves on a plate with the intention that they would be eaten with their fingers. Later Cardini shredded the leaves into bite-sized pieces. The salad became particularly popular with Hollywood movie people who visited Tijuana, and it became a featured dish at Chasen's and Romanoff's in Los Angeles."
--- Encyclopedia of American Food and Drink, John F. Mariani [Lebhar-Friedman:New York] 1999 (p. 50-51)
[NOTE: Most sources cite the restaurant as Cesar's (or Caesar's) Place.]

"It was an accident! But now Caesar Salad is tossed in handsome salad bowls, coast to coast-and on purpose! A well-known restaurateur, Caesar Cardini, concocted this zesty salad some 35 years ago at Tijuana, Mexico. Here is the true story, told to us by his daughter Rosa. One holiday weekend a throng of tourists descended on Caesar's Place. A few crates of romaine, half a case of eggs, a wheel of Italian cheese, some lemons, and dry bread-that was all the food left by Sunday morning. What to do for the hungry crowd at dinner? Caesar thought he'd have to close shop for the remainder of the holiday. Instead he decided to invent a new salad form the ingredients he had on hand. He got out the eggs, the lemons, the Parmesan cheese, the bread, and the big bottle of olive oil to which he previously had added garlic. With the romaine lettuce as the only greens, he experimented with a little of this and that in the dressing. Finally, to bind the dressing ingredients together, he came up with the idea of coddling the eggs for a minute, then tossing them with the salad. (Yes, that's right the original Caesar Salad was not made with completely raw eggs.) The loaves of bread he cut in tiny cubes and slowly oven-toasted them to add to his salad at the very end. (The anchovies, now a familiar ingredient in Caesar Salad, didn't become part of the recipe until some 10 years later.) While the waiters kibitzed, Caesar demonstrated his creation. 'Take everything to each table,' he instructed, 'and make a ceremony of fixing the salad. Plenty of fanfare. Let guests think they're having the specialty of the house.' And the guests did! So rapidly did the news of this remarkable salad spread, that diners flocked to Caesar's Place just to learn the recipe. Soon West Coast restaurants adopted it; then it appeared on the finest menus in every state. Caesar Cardini's reward? In Paris at the 1951 meeting of the International Society of Epicures, his salad was acclaimed the greatest recipe contribution of the United States in 50 years. But it was really at Tijuana, Mexico that the now world-famous Caesar Salad was born. You'll find many variations of Caesar Salad, but here Rosa Cardini, who operates the food specialty shop her father started in Los Angeles and who bottles the original Caesar salad dressing, share his authentic recipe and salad know-how."
---"The Original Caesar Salad," Myrna Johnston, Better Homes and Gardens, March, 1960 (p. 78, 152)

Story 2:
"It has been fairly well established that the late Caesar Cardini created the Caesar salad at hist restaurant in Tijuana, Mexico. Or did he? The latest word is that an Italian woman named Beatriz Santini composed the salad in Austria in 1918. Hard put for food in a country impovershed by war, she soft-boiled eggs, which were plentiful, and added them to a bowl of romaine lettuce. A little Parmesan cheese, a dressing of wine vinegar and olive oil, and the creation was complete. Cardini never met Santini. So how did he come up with the same idea? He didn't, we are told. The link was Santini's son, Livio, who emigrated to Tijuana. Livio Santini got a job with Cardini, who had opened a bar and restaurant on Second Street about 1924. One day, a hungry Santini mixed up a bit of his mother's salad. A wealthy customer from La Jolla invaded the kitchen as Santini was crunching romaine, and she asked for a taste. It pleased her so that she ordered a serving from Cardini, who came out to find what Santini was eating. One week later, the salad was on the menu, ceremoniously mixed at table side by a captain and busboy. Thus, the start of the Cardini legend. The teller of this tale was no tale-spinner. It was Livio Santini himself. Now 78, Santini was a guest of honor at Tijuana's recent first Caesar salad celebration."
---"Hail, Caesar! Doubts raised Over Origin of Famous Salad," Barbara Hansen, Los Angeles Times, September 13, 1984 (p. J1)

Story 3:
"Sr. Alex Cardini, of Cardini's Restaurant in Mexico City, affirms that he invented the original Caesar Salad in 1926, naming it after his brother."
---A World of Vegetable Cookery, Alex D. Hawkes [Simon and Schuster:New York] 1968 (p. 138)

The anchovy debate:
Food historians agree anchovies were not part of the original recipe. These salty fillets infiltrate in the 1930s.

"Cardini was adamant in insisting that the salad be subtly flavored and argued against the inclusion of anchovies, whose faint flavor in his creation he believed may have come from the Worcestershire sauce. He also decreed that only Italian olive oil and imported Parmesan cheese be used."
--- Encyclopedia of American Food and Drink (p. 51)

"According to Santini...his mother used no anchovies, no lime or lemon juice and no croutons in her salad...The controversial anchovy, acknowledged by either Beatriz Santini nor Caesar Cardini, wound up on several salads.".
---"Hail, Caesar! Doubts raised Over Origin of Famous Salad," Barbara Hansen, Los Angeles Times, September 13, 1984 (p. J1)

"The shocking truth is that while a proper Caesar always has anchovy, an authentic one never does. In its original form, Caesar salad was more a culinary tourist trap than a great American food standard, famous for the tableside show that came with the salad, not the anchovy. Yet it is the anchovy that most Caesar aficionados consider vital; only Caesar wimps ask for their salad sans the small fry. So where did the anchovy come from?...The most common theory involves Worcestershire sauce. The thinking is that Someone, Somewhere Along the Way...ran out of Worcestershire sauce...saw anchovy on the list of ingredients and made the brilliant substitution. 'We can't figure it out,' said Rosa Cardini, daughter of the salad's inventor...Cardini envisioned his a subtle salad, but as Rosa pointed out, subtle is exactly what anchovies aren't."
---"Caesar! Origin of the Species," Laurie Ochoa, Los Angeles Times, October 16, 1988 (p. L103)

When did Ceasar Salad become popular in the USA?
Conventional wisdom places the invention of this salad in the mid-20s. Our survey of contemporary sources suggests its was known, but not served, in southern California until a decade later. After WWII descriptions published in trendy journals (think: Gourmet) sparked interest. By the mid-1950s everyone who was anyone in the USA knew what a Caesar Salad was. This coincides with the passing of Mr. Cardini.

"Jean Harlow, Mable Hormand and all the stars would come to Tijuana and ask for a Cesar's salad, [Cesar Cardini] recalled...But it didn't become famous until 1937 when a screenwriter, Manny Wolfe, one of my regular customers, went to the house of Murphy restaurant here, called for the ingredients and made the salad. The manager, Di Ciro, called it his salad,. But Wolf took the recipe to the Brown Derby and Chasen's and they called it Caesar salad."
---"Chef Who Invented Caesar Salad Frowns on Apers," Aline Mosby, San Mateo Times, June 16, 1952 (p. 11)

"...Hollywood's great delicacy, the Caesar Salad...The Caesar Salad, which Mike Romanoff'll let you have at a sacrifice--only 2 Bucks--is glorified garlic. It's garlic with glamor…he first time I heard of a 2-buck salad, I wanted to render unto Caesar what was Caesar's--a big loud razberry. They my beautiful wife...pointed out that it was an aristocrat of foods. Like stone crabs in Miami, oysters Rockefeller in New Orleans, lobsters in Boston, cream cheese and bagels in New York. 'Why do they call it Caesar salad?' I kept asking. And finally I found it was invented by an Italian named Caesar Cardini in his Tijuana restaurant, called Caesar's. Edmund Lowe tasted it there and brought it to Hollywood. Caeser's ex partner, Peter Friggerio, formerly at the Colony and Marguery in New York, is now the captain at Henri's here where, of course, you can get a wonderful Caesar Salad. But confidently, the French-born Henri De Charpentier, who's chef there and used to be at Lynbrook, L. I. thinks it's a big mistake to have such a huge glamorous salad before the main course."
---"Dressing up Garlic, Early Wilson, Zanesville Times Recorder [OH], February 1, 1947 (p. 4)

"Los Angeles revisited a few weeks ago, for the first time in two years, revealed more conclusively than almost anything else that the gastronomic highlight of the current moment is an arrangement called Caesar's Salad and that its consumption is constant, universal, and something to make the public prints in any fountainhead of good living like GOURMET, as it has. Caesar's Salad, which is only infrequently encountered in restaurants in the East, but which will inevitably arrive in New York one of these fine days, is based on romaine instead of lettuce, chopped-up anchovies, a liberal inclusion of heavily garlic-flavored croutons, French dressing made slick by the inclusion of a couple of whole raw eggs, and the whole thing liberally showered with grated Parmesan. At Romanoff's, where we were taken to luncheon by GOURMET's own Stephen Longstreet, with an assortment of local characters which included Bob Hope, Gregory La Cava, Barbara Stanwyck, and Hedda Hopper at adjacent tables, we were introduced to Caesar's Salad. At Dave Chasen's, where we dined that evening with Robert Hanley, the newly discovered and flourishing decorator of the County Strip, we were immediately advised that Caesar's Salad was the thing to have. The next evening at Hansen's Scandia Restaurant in Sunset Boulevard, the assembled chivalry to a man commanded Caesar's Salad, and subsequent skirmishes with the menus at Perino's, the Vine Street Brown Derby, the garden restaurant of the Town House, and other ranking restaurants of the City of Angeles evolved the conviction that Caesar's Salad is as much of a part of the Hollywood pattern as swimming pools or the new look."
---"Along the Boulevards," Lucius Beebe, Gourmet, June 1948, [no recipe] accessed

Who was Cesar Cardini?
An Italian immigrant who wound up in Tijuana. Obviously savvy, Mr. Cardini operated a successful restaurant offering trendy cuisine to America's glamoros Hollywood stars. He left Tijuana in 1935 because Mexican regulations against gambling were crushing his business. Mr. Cardini eventually settled in Los Angles, running an imported foods store. He cashed in on his claim to fame by selling his dressing. He passed away at the age of 60 in 1956.

"Mr. Cardini devised the salad while operating the restaurant and hotel which still bears his name in Tijuana. Since 1935 he has lived in Los Angeles and was active in the marketing of the salad dressing he concocted. He was born in Lago Maggiore, Italy, worked many European hotels and came to the United States when he was 20. For a time, before going to Tijuana, he owned a restaurant in Sacramento...He leaves his widow Camille, a daughter Rosa...two sisters [living in Italy] and two brothers, Alex and Caudencio, who are in the restaurant business in Mexico City."
---"Cesar Cardini, Creator of Salad, Dies at 60," Los Angeles Times, November 5, 1956 (p. 31)

"Discouraged by failure of the Mexican government to lift the ban on border gambling, Caesar Cardini has closed his gay Tijuana café forever."
---"Resort owner Quits ‘Forever,’" Reno Evening Gazette, July 1, 1936 (p. 2)

"Caesar now runs an Italian grocery store on La Ciegna boulevard, movietown's restaurant row. He's regaining his claim to the salad fame by manufacturing his Caesar salad dressing in a tiny kitchen behind his store."
---"Chef Who Invented Caesar Salad Frowns on Apers," Aline Mosby, San Mateo Times, June 16, 1952 (p. 11)

Vintage recipes
Several publications claim they have "the original" recipe. All of them are slightly different. Our gastronomic guess says the simpler the recipe, the closer to the original. And? Most definatley NO ANCHOVIES! Most probably Worcestershire. There are no Caesar Salad (or approximations) recipes in these trendy Southern California publications: Corona Club Cook Book [1925], Ebell Society Cook Book [1926] or Fashions of Foods in Beverly Hills [1931]. The oldest print recipe food historians have identified (based on ingredients & method) was published in Sunset (magazine) March, 1945. Curiously? It's called "Romaine Salad." No reference to Caesar. The casual reader could easily miss the connection. The Caesar dressing appears in the The Brown Derby Cookbook/Cobb [1949] but not the salad. We hypothosize this omission may be at testament to the salad's "star power." Enjoying a Caesar Salad was a glamorous public event, complete with live tableside show. Sunset Cook Book/Annabel Post [1960] mentions the March 1945 recipe but prints the 1957 version (with anchovies, p. 19).

"Down in Coronado. California, there's a restaurant called La Avenida Cafe which is known as the 'Home of the Romaine Salad.' Small wonder, for the salad which is their specialite de la maison is a dish to tempt the epicure. Here's the recipe as given us by S. Jack Clapp, who is La Avenida's authority on such matters.
Romaine Salad
3 or 4 heads chilled, crisp Romaine
2 handfuls crisp croutons (little cubes of fried bread)
6 tablespoons garlic oil
4 tablespoons olive oil
Salt and black pepper to taste
1 tablespoon Worcestershire sauce
6 heaping tablespoons greated Parmesan-type cheese
1 egg
Juice of 3 lemons
Break the Romaine in to a salad bowl; add croutons, oil, seasonings, and cheese. Break the raw egg over the salad, ten pour the lemon juice over the egg. Toss all together lightly from the bottom, and serve. Serves 6. Regarding the ingredients, Mr. Clapp has this to say: Romaine: Purchase pale green heads. Remove outer leaves, wash thoroughly, shake dry, and chill in refrigerator. Garlic Oil: Chop or mash a clove of garlic and place in bottom of a pint jar. Fill jar with any salad oil keep at kitchen temperature, and use as needed. Use the oil only; don't add the garlic to the salad. Olive Oil: In the case of this particular salad, best results are obtained if only a part (4 tablespoons) of the oil used is olive oil. Black Pepper: If possible, grind it yourself with a pepper mill. Use plenty. Parmesan-type Cheese: Ideally, this should be freshly grated. Egg: The raw egg acts as a binder and causes the dressing to be evenly distributed through the salad. The flavor of the egg is not detectable in the finished salad. With the salad, Mr. Clapp suggests serving Garlic Toast. To make it, split French rolls, brush the cut surface with garlic oil, sprinkle with Parmesan-type cheese and paprika, and heat in the oven."
---"A Salad to Remember," Sunset, March 1945 (p. 27)

"1701. Caesar Salad

Prepare 2 cups of fried croutons (No. 203) in garlic-flavored olive oil. Place in wooden salad bowl rubbed with garlic, 2 medium-sized heads crisp chilled romain, leaves separated and broken. Sprinkle over it 1/4 teaspoon dry mustard, black pepper, 1/2 teaspoon salt, 4 oz., grated Parmesan or crumbled blue cheese. Add 6 tablespoons pure olive oil and juice of 2 medium-sized lemons. Break 2 raw eggs over salad, toss and mix gently, until trace of eggs has disappeared and the leaves have absorbed all liquid. Taste for seasoning. Just before serving, add the fried croutons, mixing and tossing salad again, being careful croutons do not become soggy. Make at table just before serving."
---The Gold Cook Book, Luis P. DeGouy [Gallahad Books:New York] 1947 (p. 815)

Ceasar Salad

from the Pump Room of the Ambassador Hotel, Chicago
1 coddled egg
2 cloves garlic
1/8 teaspoon Bahama mustard
1 tablespoon Parmesan cheese
3/4 cup croutons
1 tablespoon lemon juice
3 tablespoons olive oil
6 whole anchovies
2 heads romaine
Cut croutons out of sliced bread 1/2" square. Roast same in oven, brown crisp under broiler. Take two heads of romaine and wash thoroughly. Cut same crosswise about 1/2" wide. Place in wooden bowl. Choose another bowl for your dressing. In this bowl break up garlic with fork and rub sides of bowl with it. Add black pepper, pinch of salt, Worcestershire sauce, mustard, lemon juice and mix thoroughly. Then, after adding olive oil, mix thoroughly again. Add cut-up anchovies. Mix coddled eggs to greens in wooden bowl. Add salad dressing from second bowl and toss slightly. Add croutons and half the amount of cheese and toss again, lightly. Place on salad plate and sprinkle with remaining cheese."
---Love and Fishes, Niccolo de Quattrochiocchi [Bobbs-Merrill Company:Indianapolis IN] 1950 (p. 365-366)
[NOTE: this book is chock full of celebrity recipes.]

"[Caesar Cardini’s original recipe]

Romaine lettuce, a one-minute egg, garlic croutons, Parmesan or Romano cheese, lemon juice, garlic, mustard, Worcestershire sauce, whole pepper, pear vinegar and olive oil."
---"Chef Who Invented Caesar Salad Frowns on Apers," Aline Mosby, San Mateo Times, June 16, 1952 (p. 11)
[NOTE: preparation/method notes are not offered.]

"Caesar Salad

Crush a clove of garlic and add it to ¾ of a cup of olive oil. Let stand overnight. Brown 2 cups of croutons, made from stale sourdough French bread, in ¼ cup of this garlic oil, stirring them carefully so that they will color on all sides. Drain on paper toweling. (Or, if you prefer, merely toast the bread cubes brown in a slow oven.) Now break 2 large or 3 small heads of romaine into a large bowl, grind on a good generous amount of fresh black pepper and add ½ teaspoon of salt, then dress with ½ cup of the garlic oil. Turn the salad until every leaf is glossy with oil, then break 2 eggs, cooked one minute, plunk into the middle of the salad. Now, before the mixing is resumed, squeeze the guide of a big fat lemon directly over the egg (if the lemon is small, use 1 ½ or even 2 of them!), and mix so that there is a thick creamy look to the lettuce. If you wish to include fillets of anchovies, and many say you must, here is where they are added-6 to 8, snipped into bits. Now taste it, and don't hesitate to use your fingers. More salt? More lemon? Add them, or vinegar if you wish, plenty of experts do so. (And others insist on a slug of Worcestershire!) The seasoning is now as you want it, so a good ½ cup (at least) of grated Parmesan is tossed in, the salad mixed some more, and finally the croutons are added, and the salad served at once so they won't become limp and soggy. Like any salad of this kind, the artists adds (or subtracts) as he goes along, so Caesar salad, as you make it, is all your own! Serves a dozen, more or less.
1 clove garlic
2/4 cup olive oil
2 cups croutons
2-3 heads romaine
½ teaspoon salt
2 eggs
Juice of a large lemon
6-8 fillets of anchovies (optional)
½ cup grated Parmesan."
---West Coast Cook Book, Helen Evans Brown, facsimile 1952 edition [Cookbook Collectors Library] 1952 (p. 308-309)

"Caesar Salad

1 large head iceberg lettuce
1 large head Romaine
1/4 cup crumbled Blue cheese
1/4 cup grated Parmesan cheese
1/2 cup salad oil
1 tablespoon Worcestershire sauce
1 teaspoon salt
Dash of fresh ground pepper
1 raw egg
1/4 cup garlic wine vinegar
2 cups croutons
Sprinkle prepared greens with cheese. Combine 1/4 cup salad oil with Worcestershire Sauce, salt and pepper. Toss lightly with greens until each piece is coated. Break whole egg into greens, sprinkle with garlic wine vinegar, toss until all egg particles disappear. Combine remaining oil and croutons, toss with salad. Makes 8 servings."
---"Caesar Salad Featured by World Famous Restaurants," San Mateo Times, June 27, 1956 (p. 36)

"Caesar Salad

Several chefs and restauranteurs claim to have originated this well known green salad. Sunset first discovered the salad in a small Coronado restaurant and first published the recipe in
March 1945. No one seems to know whether it was created by, or for, a 'Caesar.' This version was published in Sunset in 1957. Caesar Salad is invariably tossed at the table, where everyone can watch the host or hostess season and mix the greens and drop in each additional ingredient.
1 clove garlic
3/4 cup olive or other salad oil
2 cups croutons
2 large heads romaine
1/2 teaspoon salt
Freshly ground pepper
2 eggs, cooked 1 monute
Juice of one large lemon
6 to 8 anchovy fillets, chopped
1/2 cup grated Parmesan cheese
Crush garlic in small bowl, pour over the oil, and let stand several hours. Brown the croutons (preferably made from stale sourdough French bread) in 1/4 cup of the garlic oil, stirring often. (If you prefer, you can toast the bread cubes in a slow oven.) Tear romaine into a large salad bowl, sprinkle with salt, and grind over a generous amount of pepper. Pour over remaining garlic oil and toss until every leaf is glossy. Break the 1-minute eggs into salad; squeeze over the lemon juice, and toss thorougly. Add chopped anchovies and grated cheese, and toss again. Lastly, add the croutons, toss genetly, and serve immediately. Serves about 12."
---The Sunset Cook Book, Annabel Post, home economics editor [Lane Book Company:Menlo Park CA] 1960 (p. 19)

"The Original Caesar Salad

3 medium heads romaine lettuce, chilled, dry, crisp
Garlic-flavored olive oil, about 1/3 cup
Wine vinegar, 2 to 3 tablespoons
Juice of 1 lemon
1 or 2 1-minute coddled eggs
Freshly ground pepper
Dash Worcestershire sauce
Grated Parmesan cheese, 5 or 6 tablespoons
Caesar Croutons, about 1 cup
Break romaine leaves into 2- to 3-inch widths. At last minute before serving, place romaine in chilled salad bowl Drizzle the garlic oil over greens, then the vinegar. Squeeze the lemon over, using a fork to help free the juice. Break in the 1-minute eggs. Grind a flurry of pepper over all. Season with salt and a dash of Worcestershire. Sprinkle with grated Parmesan cheese. Roll-toss 6 or 7 times, or until dressing is thoroughly combined and every leaf is coated. Add Caesar Croutons; toss 2 or 2 times. Serve at once on chilled dinner plates. If you like, garnish with rolled anchovies. Makes 6 servings as main course. "

"Caesar Croutons: Cut each slice of bread in 5 strips one way, then across 5 times to make squares. Spread out on cooky sheet; pour a little garlic-flavored oil over. Heat in extremely slow oven (225 degrees F.) 2 hours. The croutons should be so dry, they'd float on water! Ten they'll stay crunch when tossed with the dressing and greens. Sprinkle croutons with grated Parmesan cheese. Store in jar and refrigerate to keep crispness."
---"The Original Caesar Salad," Myrna Johnston, Better Homes and Gardens, March, 1960 (p. 78, 152)

Caesar salad dressing
This salad's special dressing plays center stage. There is no other option. Of course? There are variations...

"Caesar Dressing
, Serves 2
1 egg, coddled 1 minute
1 heaping tbs. grated Parmesan cheese
4 tbsp. pastry cream
1/2 cup
Brown Derby Old-fashioned French Dressing
Place coddled egg in a mixing bowl, add cheese and pastry cream. Blend well. Slowly whip in French Dressing. Any salad mixed with this dressing should be garnished with garlic-French-bread croutons."
---Brown Derby Cookbook, Robert H. Cobb [Doubleday & Company:Garden City NY] 1949(p. 69)

Commercial production notes When the legendary Caesar Salad was *invented* by Mr. Cardini in his Tijuana eatery in the 1920s, he made the dressing from scratch. According to his obituary, Mr. Cardini actively promoted commercial manufacture of his famous salad dressing: "Mr. Cardini devised the salad while operating the restaurant and hotel which still bears his name in Tijuana. Since 1935 he had lived in Los Angeles and was active in the marketing of the salad dressing he concocted." SOURCE: Los Angeles Times, November 5, 1956 (p. 31).

According to the records of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office Cardini's brand Caesar Salad dressing was introduced to the American public February 6, 1950:

Word Mark CARDINI'S Goods and Services (ABANDONED) IC 029. US 046. G & S: SALAD DRESSING AND SALAD DRESSING MIX. FIRST USE: 19500206. FIRST USE IN COMMERCE: 19780915 Mark Drawing Code (1) TYPED DRAWING Serial Number 73426710 Filing Date May 19, 1983 Current Filing Basis 1A Original Filing Basis 1A Owner (APPLICANT) CARDINI, ROSA SINAN DBA, CAESAR CARDINI FOODS INDIVIDUAL UNITED STATES 4020 SEPULVEDA BLVD. CULVER CITY CALIFORNIA 90230 Attorney of Record R. WELTON WHANN Type of Mark TRADEMARK Register PRINCIPAL Live/Dead Indicator DEAD Abandonment Date July 5, 1984 [NOTE: Cardini's brand name dressing is still being made. The current trademark owner is T. Marzetti company.]

Perhaps the convincing push Mr. Cardini needed to capitalize on his name was a reaction to another company which already started making Caesar Dressing in the late 1940s. The earliest print evidence we find for manufactured Caesar Salad dressing is this advertisment published in 1949; "Milani's Caesar Dressing for Caesar Salads, 45 cents/6 oz bottle." SOURCE: Chicago Daily Tribune, September 29, 1949 (p. 9)

Green Goddess dressing
Food historians generally credit Philip Roemer, chef of the Palace Hotel in San Francisco, for the creation of Green Goddess Salad dressing. It was allegedly made in honor of George Arliss, an actor starring in a play by that same name. The year is fuzzy because the play ran in the 1920s followed by a popular film version in the 1930s. Our survey of historic American cookbooks confirms mayonnaise-based salad dressing recipes proliferated during the early decades of the 20th century. In fact? Entire books were devoted to salads at that time. We examined several books and found several recipes for mayonnaise-tarragon-anchovy dressings-onion dressings. Given the noteriety of Green Goddess, it seems surprising to find recipes named such first surfacing in the late 1930s-early 1940s. Sometimes they are called "Green dressing."

"In the mid-1920s, actor George Arliss starred in a William Archer play called The Green Goddess. During the San Francisco run, he stayed at the Palace Hotel and dined often at its Palm Court Restaurant. To honor Arliss, chef Philip Roemer created a new mixed green salad with a creamy herb dressing. "Green Goddess," he called it."
---The American Century Cookbook: The Most Popular Recipes of the 20th Century, Jean Anderson [Clarkson Potter:New York] 1997 (p. 267)

"Green Goddess. A salad or salad dressing made from anchovies, mayonnaise, tarragon vinegar, and other seasonings, The salad was created at San Francisco's Palace Hotel (now the Sheraton-Palace) in the mid-1920s at the request of actor George Arliss (1868-1946), who was appearing in town in William Archer's play The Green Goddess (which opened in New York in 1921 ans as twice made into a motion picture [1923 and 1930] starring Arliss)."
---The Encyclopedia of American Food & Drink, John F. Mariani [Lebhar-Friedman:New York] 1999 (p. 144-5)
[NOTE: This book contains a recipe supplied by the Sheraton-Palace, no date.]

Green Goddess recipe sampler

"Green Goddess Salad Dressing

One cup mayonnaise, garlic, 1 tablespoon French dressing, 1 tablespoon chopped parsley, 1 tablespoon chives chopped fine, 1 tablespoon tarragon, 4 fillets of anchoves.---La Casa Pico Tea Room"
---Fashions in Foods in Beverly Hills, Compiled by the Book Section Beverly Hills Womans Club [Beverly Hills], 3rd edition 1931 (p. 26)

"Green Goddess Salad Dressing

Combine three tablespoons finely chopped parsley, three tablespoons sliced green onion, two tablespoons chopped chives or tops of green onions, one two-ounce can anchovy fillets, one cup mayonnaise, one tablespoon tarragon vinegar, two tablespoons lemon juice, one-fourth teaspoon salt and dash of pepper. Mix well. Makes two cups dressing and serves eight."
---"Requested Recipes," Marian Manners, Los Angeles Times, December 31, 1937 (p. A6)

"Green Goddess Salad Dressing.

The Palm Court of the Palace Hotel in San Francisco has become famous for its Green Goddess salad dressing, and I have the gracious permission of Mr. Edmond A. Reider, general manager of the Palace Hotel, to include this marvelous dressing.
8 to 10 fillets of anchovies
1 piece of young onion
Little parsley and tarragon leaves, chopped fine
3 cups mayonnaise
Rub a bowl with garlic, or use a little garlic-flavored oil. Mix the above ingredients; add a little tarragon vinegar and finely cut chives. Cut romaine, escarole, and chicory. Mix all together and serve. use 1 tablespoonful for each person."
---Trader Vic's Book of Food & Drink, Victor Bergeron, with an introduction by Lucius Beebe [Doubleday & Company:New York] 1946 (p. 197)

"This California creation...originated in the Palace Hotel in San Francisco. And Miss Genevieve Callahan says in her appetizing volume, "The California Cook Book," that it was named in honor of George Arliss when he was appearing in "The Green Goddess." This recipe, tested in our kitchen, as it comes from our informant, follows:

Green Goddess Salad
1 clove garlic, minced
1/3 cup mayonnaise
1 tablespoon wine vinegar
1 tablespoon Worcestershire sauce
Cracked pepper
2 teaspoons minced chives
2/3 small tin anchovy fillets, finely chopped
Oil contained in the tin of anchovies
1 tablespoon chopped parsley
1 medium head romaine
1. Place garlic in salad bowl. Blend in all the remaining ingredients except the parsley and romaine. Add the cracked pepper to taste. Let stand at room temperature for an hour or longer.
2. Just before serving add the parsley and break into the bowl the romaine leaves. Toss together well. Yield: four to six servings."
---"News of Food: A Reader Swears by Green Goddess Salad...", Jane Nickerson, New York Times, April 29, 1949 (p. 26)

"You have heard, of course, of the Green Goddess Dressing?
This originated at the Palace by today there are as many versions of the Goddess as ways to make apple pie. Here's the original recipe:
Green-Goddess Dressing
1 clove garlic
4 anchovy fillets, finely cut
2 tabplespoons chopped onion
1 teaspoon chopped parsley
1 teaspoon chopped tarragon
1 teaspoon tarragon vinegar
1 1/2 cups mayonnaise
Cut garlic clove in half; rub cut sides over salad bowl; add anchofy, onion, parsley, chopped tarragon, chives and tarragon vinegar. Add mayonniase, gently mix until thoroughly blended. Yield: 1 3/4 cups. Serve over romaine, escarole and chicory."
---"How America Eats: San Francisco...Palace Court Salad," Clementine Paddleford, Los Angeles Times, September 11, 1949 (p. G36)

"Green Goddess Salad Dressing, Serves 6

1/2 cup heavy cream
1 tbls. Lemon juice
1 cup Brown Derby Mayonniase
1 rounding tbs. Anchovy paste
2 tbs. Tarragon vinegar
2 tbls. Garlic vinegar
2 tbls. Shallot vinegar
1/4 cup finely chopped onion
1/3 cup finely chopped parsley
Add lemon juice to cream, then mix with other ingredients. Serve with green salad. The Green Goddess Salad Dressing originated more than thirty years ago. It was named for the play in which George Arliss was starring and was first served at a testimonial dinner given him in the opening night in San Francisco. Delicately flavored, its smooth consistency causes this dressing to fully coat each leaf in the bowl."
---Brown Derby Cookbook [Doubleday & Company:Garden City NY] 1949 (p. 64-5)

"Green Goddess Dressing

There have been innumerable imitations and variation of this famous salad dressing since it was first created at the Palace Hotel, in honor of George Arliss, who was opening in William Archer's play The Green Goddess. This recipe is one given me by the Palace Hotel, and who should know better than they how it is prepared? The parenthetical notes are mine, added egotistically for fear that laymen may find the chef's directions a trifle vague.

"Mince 8 to 10 fillets of anchovies with 1 green onion, add minced parsley (1/4 cup) and minced tarragon (2 tablespoons), 3 cups of mayonnaise, a little (1/4 cup) of tarragon vinegar, and finely cut chives (1/4 cup). Mix in a bowl that had been rubbed with garlic."

8-10 fillets of anchovies
1 green onion
1/4 cup minced parsley
2 tablespoons minced tarragon
3 cups mayonnaise
1/4 cup tarragon vinegar
1/4 cup finely cut chives.
NOTE: There is a growing tendency to add sour cream to Green Goddess dressing, as there is to add it to almost everything. Do so if you wish, and cut down substantially on the mayonniase. NOTE: Another version of Green Goddess: 1 cup of mayonnaise, 1/4 cup of minced parsley, 1/4 cup of tarragon vinegar, 2 teaspoons fresh (or 1 of dried) tarragon (the latter soaked in the vinegar and strained out). To this add 4 minced anchovies or 2 tablespoons of anchovy paste, and either 2 tablespoons of minced green onions or chives. Thin with a little cream if desired."
---West Coast Cook Book, Helen Brown, 1952 reprint by the Cookbook Collectors Library (p. 318-9)

"Green Salad Dressing

[About 2 Cupfuls]
Combine in a bowl:
1 cup mayonnaise
1/2 cup heavy sour cream
1 tablespoon lemon juice
2 tablespoons tarragon vinegar, wine vinegar, or other
1 tablespoons garlic vinegar
2 tablespoons herb vinegar
2 tablespoons anchovy paste
1/3 cup finely chopped parsley
1/4 cup finely chopped onion or chives.
Mix these ingredinets well. Serve them over vegetables of fish."
---Joy of Cooking, Irma S. Rombauer and Marion Rommbauer Becker [Bobbs-Merrill Company:Indianapolis] 1953 (p. 496)
[NOTE: This recipe is not included in the 1946 or previous editions.]

"Green Goddess sauce

[yields 2 cups]
1 cup mayonnaise
1 clove garlic, minced
3 anchovies, chopped 1/4 cup finely cut chives or green onions with tops
1/4 cup chopped parsley
1 tablespoon fresh lemon juice
1 tablespoon tarragon vinegar
1/2 teaspoon salt
Freshly ground black pepper
1/2 cup sour cream
Blend all the ingredients except the sour cream. Fold in the sour cream. Serve with chilled cooked fish."
---New York Times Cook Book, Craig Claiborne [Harper & Row:New York] 1961 (p. 449)

"Green Goddess dressing
was a San Francisco creation, made by a chef for George Arliss when he played here in Michael Arlin's play, The Green Goddess, many years ago. There are many versions of this popular dressing. I've added a touch of chili to mone. If you prefer, leave it out--it will still be very good. Serve this rich dressing on crisp romaine. A topping of prawns or crab meat is often added.

Green Chili Green Goddess Dressing
1 clove garlic, finely minced
1/2 teaspoon dry mustard
3/4 teaspoon seasoned salt
1/2 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce
6 anchovies, finely chopped
1 tablespoon chopped green chili
2 tablespoons tarragon wine vinegar
3/4 cup mayonnaise
3/4 cup dairy sour cream
1/4 cup finely chopped parsley
1 tablespoon chopped chives
Freshly ground pepper to taste
Combine garlic, mustard, salt, Worcestershire sauce, anchovies, chili and vinegar. Blend in mayonnaise and sour cream. Cover and refrigerate for several hours, to blend flavors. Stir in parsley, chives and pepper just before serving. Makes 1 3/4 cups dressing."
---Elena's Favorite Foods, California Style, Elena Zelayeta [Prentice-Hall:Englewood Cliffs NJ] 1967 (p. 68-69)

Roquefort cheese is ancient; roquefort salad dressing is 20th century.

About Roquefort cheese ---Oxford Companion to Food, Alan Davidson [Oxford University Press:Oxford] 1999 (p. 670

Roquefort...has been made for thousands of years...but the earliest known record of it in English is not before 1726."
---An A to Z of Food and Drink, John Ayto [Oxford University Press:Oxford] 2002 (p. 286)

"According to legend, Roquefort was discovered centuries ago-possibly before the Christian era...The legend has it that a shepherd boy in the rocky country of the Causses left his lunch of bread and ordinary curd cheese in one of the cool caves of the district, thinking to come back for it later in the day. But it was weeks before he returned to find his abandoned lunch. Then, with the morbid curiousity of those who cannot throw anything away without peeking first, he looked, he smelled, and then he tasted. At which there may well have followed on of the greatest Aha's in gastronomic history...And since 1411 when Charles VI issued a decree restricting the name Roquefort fo the cheese made int he Roquefort district of the Causses, no other...could be called Roquefort."
---The Cheese Book, Vivienne Marquis and Patricia Haskell [Leslie Frewisn:London] 1964 (p. 127-8)

Recommended reading: The Roquefort Adventure/Henri Pourrat p> Roquefort salad dressing: Our food history sources indicate Roquefort dressing, as we know it today, may be a relatively new item. None of the sources we checked credit a particular person/place with the invention. We do know that creamy cheese dressings were not part of early modern French cuisine. Roquefort dressing/sauce is not included in Escoffier's Guide Culinaire [1907]. It is the "dressing of choice" for classic American Iceberg Wedge salad, circa 1950s-1960s.

Roquefort generally eaten in small quantities at the end of a dinner. It is especially delightful if rolled with half its bulk of butter, sprinkled liberally with cayenne pepper and spread on toasted biscuits. It is also used to fill the hollow parts of stalks of celery, etc."
---The Grocer's Encyclopedia, Artemas Ward [New York] (p. 123)

"Roquefort cheese dressing.

Mix one-fourth cupful of Roquefort cheese to a paste with one-third cupful of olive oil, add one-half teaspoonful of mustard, salt and pepper to taste and enough paprika to make it a creamy pink color, then add one tablespoonful of vinegar and beat the dressing while slowly adding more olive oil until it is thin enough to serve. This dressing is suitable for lettuce, tomatoes and other green vegetable salads."
---Salads, Sandwiches and Chafing Dish Recipes, Marion Harris Neil [David McKay:Philadeliphia] 1916 (p. 171-2)


There is some controversy regarding the origin of Russian Salad and Russian Salad Dressing. Primary evidence confirms these recipes were known in Russia in the 19th century. They were introduced by the French and known as "Vinaigrette" or "Salad Olivier." American food historians generally believe that Russian Salad/Dressing are American inventions based on selected ingredients associated with Russian cuisine. Russian dressing, as we know it today, it is a creamy vinaigrette concoction. These dressing were popular in the 19th century. This is also the base for French Dressing.

"Russian dressing. A salad dressing made form mayonnaise, pimiento, chile sauce, green pepper, and chives. It is so called possible because the mixture was thought to resemble those found in Russian salads, but it is American in origin, first found in print in 1922."
---Encyclopedia of American Food and Drink, John F. Mariani [Lebhar-Friedman:New York] 1999 (p. 278)

"I rather doubt that you will find a recipe for Russian dressing in any Russian cookbook, and it seems quite definately of American origin. To the best of my knowledge you won't find it in the French repertory of cooking under sauce Russe or otherwise. It is my belief that the original recipe for the dressing contained caviar, in addition to mayonnaise, chili sauce, horeseradish, and grated onion, and that this is the source of the name."
---Craig Claiborne's The New York Times Food Encyclopedia, compiled by Joan Whitman [Times Books"New York] 1985 (p. 376)

"Like strawberries Romanoff, other dishes that Americans associate with Russia carry Russian names but are not part of the traditional cusine. These include russian dressing, a mixture of mayonnaise and chili sauce...Some food writers claim that russian dressing got its name because it once contained caviar, but that is unlikely. The name probably refers to the Russian love of pickles, as pickles or relish are often added to the dressing."
---Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America, Andrew F. Smith editor [Oxford University Press:New York] 2004, Volume 2 (p. 379)

The earliest print reference we find for Russian Dressing is a menu from the Gridiron Club: "Endive Salad, Russian Dressing..." Washington Post, October 10, 1911 (p. 1). According to the article below, Russian salads and their dressings were fashionable in the years immediately preceding The Great War. Predictably, every cook offered a unique interpretation of this particular salad.

Early recipes

"Vegetable Salad, Russian Dressing

For this delicious salad, arrange on lettuce some string beans, asparagus, beets and corn. Serve with Russian dressing, which is made by thinning a mayonnaise dressing with chili sauce, chopped parsley, onion and green pepper."
---"Tested Recipes," Wilkes-Barre Times [PA], December 4, 1912 (p. 16)

"Russian Dressing

A very excellent recipe for "Russian Dressing" is as follows: Get a large bowl and mixer, then beat yolk of 3 eggs, 1 teaspoon of mustard and 1 of salt, a dash of paprika and 1/2 cup vinegar. Mix up well and, while mixing, add 1 pinch olive oil and continue mixing until thick. Strain one-half bottle of chili sauce throuh a cloth and mix what remains with the dressing. Add some chopped chives and a dahs of Worcestershire sauce and the dressing is complete."
---"Household Department," Boston Daily Globe, January 23, 1914 (p. 14)

Russian salad?
What we Americans know as Russian Salad originated in the that country in the 19th century. It was created by a French chef and composed (partly) of native ingredients. Most notably, beets and pickles. In Russia it was called "Salad Olivier," after the chef who concocted it:

"Salad Olivier. This salad is a creation of a French chef, M. Olivier, who in the 1860s opened a fashionable Moscow restaurant, The Ermitage, where the salad became so popualr that ever dinner in the restaurant included it. The original recipe involved grouse meat, crayfish tails, and truffles. The most respected chefs in town tried to re-create the dish, but it never came out as well as at The Ermitage, possible because of the unique compound flavoring of the mayonnaise, whose secret M. Olivier never divulged."
---The Art of Russian Cuisine, Anne Volokh [MacMillan:New York] 1983 (p. 60)

"As for 'Russian salad', as interpereted in western countries (i.e. diced cooked vegetables in or with mayonnaise), it was essentiallly a French-Russian creation called Vinegrety which had a dressing of oil and vinegar."
---Oxford Companion to Food, Alan Davidson Oxford University Press:Oxford] 1999 (p. 676)

Compare these recipes:


Take various cooked meats: game or wild fowl; veal or beef; or boiled fish, such as sturgeon, pike or salmon. Add 1-2 boiled or baked beets, 1 spoon cornichons, 1 salted or fresh large, peeled cucumber, 1 herring, 2 hard-boiled eggs, 5-6 marinated saffron milk-cal mushrooms, 1 spoon pickles, 5-6 boiled, finely chopped potatoes, 2 spoons capers, 3 spoons sauerkraut, 1/2 glass white beans, boiled in salted water, and 20 pitted olives. Cube all these ingredients and pour on mustard sauce, made by mixing together salt, pepper, 1/2 glass or more vinegar, about 2 spoons olive oil, 1 1/2 spoons prepared mustard, and 2-3 pieces sugar, if desired. Mix the sauce with the vegetables arrange on a platter, and surround with attractively sliced boiled potatoes and beets. Place parsley all around or decorate with variously colored aspic, lemon, and hard-boiled eggs. For fast days, omit all meat and dairy products." * Internationally, this salad and others like it have become known a "Russian salad," while in Russia they are often called "Olivier salad," after the French chef of that name who in the 1880s ran a fashionable Moscow restaurant called the Hermitage."
---Classic Russian Cooking: Elena Molokhovets' A Gift to Young Housewives, translated and introduced by Joyce Toomre [Indiana University Press:Bloomington] 1992 (p. 298)

"Russian salad.

12 anchovies
2 small gherkins
1/2 pint of aspic jelly
1 small potato
1/2 can of mushrooms
1 head of celery
1/2 pint of mayonnaise
2 eggs
1/2 pint of carefully cooked peas
1 good-sized beet
1 boiled carrot
2 tablespoonfuls of capers
1 pound of boiled halibut, or salmon
1/2 can of caviar
Stand a small bomb mold in a pan of cracked ice. Make the aspic; cut the anchovies into halves. Chop fine the potato, beet and carrot, whcih should all be cooked; chop the mushrooms and celery. Put a little of the aspic into the bottom of the mold, on top of which put a few fillets of anchovies, a little chopped white of hard boiled eggs, a little of the mixed vegetables, and a few slices of gherkins; then the mushrooms, and then a layer of cold boiled fish; then another layer of anchovy fillets, and arrange as before. Pour over the remaining quantity of aspic which must be cold, not hard, and stand in a cold place overnight for several hours. When ready to serve, dip the mold quickly into hot water; turn out on crisp lettuce leaves; make a hole in the centre of the mold by twirling around a tablespoon, taking out the piece, and fill the space with caviar; garnish the dish with finely chopped onion and triangular pieces of buttered pumpernickel."

---Mrs. Rorer's New Cook Book, Sarah Tyson Rorer [Arnold and Company:Philadelphia] 1902 (p. 470-1)

"A request for "Russian Salad Dressing" arouses my curiousity as to what some cook has, quite independent of tradition, given that name. As far as my experience in a number of countries goes, the salad dressing served with Russian salad is the mayonnaise alone, or for more exquisite salads a mayonnaise mixed with a bit of gelatin or highly seasoned meat jelly (aspic) melted. In some cases if a fine salad is wanted each of the ingredients is mixed with a French dressing (marinated), and allowed to stand for an hour or more before they are put together, and served with a mayonnaise...As to how a Russian salad is different from a French macedoine or jardiniere... it might be hard to decide, in some countries, but there is probably no doubt but that in Russia smoked salmon and other rfish are used in it. As it became popular in other countries only the mixture of cooked vegetables has been used, peas and carrots being essential. Russian sald in Italy is defined as "all kinds of cooked vegetables cut up together and served with mayonnaise."...Artusi says that the thing called Russian salad (Insalata Russa), "now the mode for dinners," has the fundamental characteristic that cooks slop together what they please. He states that he makes it simply of lettuce, beet root, green beans, potatoes, carrots, capers, little cucumber pickles, salt anchovies, and a hard boiled egg. He cuts up and arranges these, according to his own fancy, then makes a mayonnaise. He prepares a gelatin, puts a layer of it into a mold, and arranges on a layer of it different colored vegetables et cetera...The following recipe is a famous Belgian cook's recipe: Salad Russe...Add at the moment of serving three or four tablespoons of 'mayonnaise a la gelee,' (with gelatin) well seasoned which you have beat to a cream on ice. Press in a dom form and cover with mayonniase. Decorate with details of pickles, of beet root cut in rounds and crescents, with capers and filets of anchovy."
---"Economical Housekeeping," Jane Eddington, Chicago Daily Tribune, September 17, 1913 (p. 11)

Thousand Island dressing
Many food historians credit
Sophia LaLonde, of Clayton NY, with the invention of Thousand Island dressing. Her recipe, as legend has it, was popular with vacationers summering in the Thousand Island region between New York and Canada. LaLonde's hotel, now renamed the Thousand Island Inn, stills serves the "original product." We've been there and it is delicious! Historians also credit two other originators for this dressing: Oscar Tschirky, of the Waldorf Astoria [NYC] and Chef Theo Rooms [Chicago]

"National Culinary Progress, official organ of Progressive Culinary Association, published at Chicago, give the origin of Thousand Island Dressing. Chef Theo Rooms of the Drake Hotel, Chicago, is credited as being the originator of this famous dressing. It was first produced in The Blackstone of Chicago, when this hotel was first opened, and Mr. Rooms was the chef de garde manger. The magazine quotes Mr. Rooms to the effect that it was first called Blackstone Dressing. Later, Mr. Rooms, in collaboration with Albert Awater, maitre d'hotel of the Blackstone, gave to it the name Thousand Island Dressing. Another story of its creation is that it origainted in the home of George C. Boldt, in the Thousand Islands of the St. Lawrence River, and that it was served under the name of Thousand Island Dressing in the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel, New York, before served in The Blackstone." ---Author's note, The Edgewater Beach Hotel Salad Book, Arnold Shircliffe [Hotel Monthly Press:Evanston IL] 1926 (p. 261-262)

The Blacktone connection
The earliest print reference we found for Blackstone Dressing was a dinner menu from the Hotel Holland Cafe, Duluth Minnesota, September 19, 1915, 6 to 8PM. "Head lettuce and Orange Salad, Blackstone Dressing," Duluth-News Tribune (MN), September 19, 1915 (p. 11). The earliest recipe we found was this:

"Blackstone Dressing

Mix with four tablespoonfuls of mayonnaise dressing four tablespoonfuls of whipped cream, two of chili sauce and two of tomato catsup with two of vinegar. Roquefort cheese may be added if desired."
---"Helps for Home Needs," Pueblo Chieftan [Colorado], Feburary 28, 1919 (p. 5)

What were the original Thousand Island dressing ingredients? If the owners of the hotel (now holders of the trademark) won't divulge, it is unlikely we will ever know. There is no recipe for Thousand Island Dressing in Oscar Tschirky's famous Cookbook by "Oscar" of the Waldorf, circa 1908. Our survey of historic American newspapers offers the earliest references to Thousand Island dressing in 1912. Recipes begin to show up in American cookbooks about as 1916. As one might expect, there were several variations!

Surprisingly? The oldest print reference we found to Thousand Island Dressing came from a Texas newspaper:
"At University of Texas tent at the State Fair yesterday, Miss Rich gave a lecture on "Salds and Salad Dressing,"...Demonstration is given. Tomato and green pepper salad, vegetable salad with thousand island dressing and stuffed cherry salad were prepared. The following is a recipe for the vegetable salad and the dressing...thousand island dressing. This dressing is made by adding chopped onions, green pepper, nut meats, olives and pimentos to any good mayonnaise or cooked salad dressing."
---"University of Texas Tent is Thronged," Dallas Morning News [Texas], October 19, 1912 (p. 9)
[NOTE: the name of this dressing is NOT capitalized in this article.]

Sample early recipes:

"Thousand Island Dressing

Take one cup mayonnaise dressing, mix, with one-half cup whipped cream, add small amount of Tarragon vinegar, one-half teaspoonful of Imperial Sauce, then chop one hard boiled egg, one green pepper, one pimento, one pinch chives, mix well together and squeeze the juice of one lemon before serving. This sauce can be served with any kind of salad."
---"Thousand Island Dressing," Kansas City Star [Missouri], November 26, 1912 (p. 7)

"Thousand Island Dressing

Some one has asked you for the recipe for "Thousand Island" dressing. it is the oil mayonnaise, made as usual, then enough chili sauce added to satisfy the desires of the cook...The influx of recipe for the dressing...indicated, and after weeks of vain solicitation for the formula, reminds one of the beraking up of a 'log jam' in rivers that border lumbering districts. Were I to undertake the publication of one-half that like before me, there would be room for nothing else in our Corner for a month to come. The oddest part of the flood is that no three recipes are alike. One is ready to ask if tha number may not, in the long run, rival that of the islands from which the formula borrowed its name. The honorable authority authority quoted above has apparently supplied the key to the enigma. All have one and the same foundation. And many have builded thereupon."
---"Marian Harlan's Helping Hand," Marian Harland, Chicago Daily Tribune, February 6, 1914 (p. 16)

"Thousand Island Dressings

No. 1.--Mix one-half cupful of mayonnaise dressing with one-half cupful of whipped cream, add two tablespoonfuls of chopped pimientoes, one tablespoonful of chopped green peppers, one chopped hard-cooked egg, one-half teaspoonful of chopped chives, one-half tablespoonful of tomato catchup and one-half tablespoonful of tarragon vinegar. Stir well together and serve with any green salad.
No. 2.--Rub one hard-cooked egg through a sieve, add two tablespoonfuls of finely chopped onion, two small cooked or canned beets, finely chopped, one half cupful of mayonnaise dressing, one tablespoonful of sieved chili sauce and four tablespoonfuls of thick cream. Chill before using.
No. 3.--Put one-half cupful of olive oil into a jar, add the strained juice of half a lemon and half an orange, one tablespoonful of finely chopped parsley, one teaspoonful of onion-juice, six chopped olives, six chopped cooked chestnuts, one-fourth teaspoonful of salt, one-fourth teaspoonful of paprika, one teaspoonful of walnut or mushroom catchup, one teaspoonful of tarragon vinegar, a few drops of Tabasco sauce and one-fourth teaspoonful of mustard. Cover the jar and shake the mixture for eight minutes. Serve with lettuce, endive, tomato and combination salads."
---Salads, Sandwiches and Chafing Dish Recipes, Marion Harris Neil [David McKay:Philadelphia] 1916 (p. 168-9)

"French Thousand Island Dressing

1 tbsp. Orange juice.
1 tbsp. Lemon juice.
1 tsp. Onion juice.
2 tbsp. Finely chopped green pepper.
2 tbsp. Finely chopped pimentoes.
Add the above ingredients to French dressing."

"French Dressing.
1/2 tsp. Salt.
1/4 tsp Pepper.
1/8 tsp. Paprika.
1 to 2 tbsp. Vinegar.
4 tbsp. Oil.
Mix ingredients in order given, stirring vigorously."
---The Housewife's Cook Book, Lilla Frich [Lilla Frich:Minneapolis MN] 1917 (p. 204)

"Thousand Island Salad Dressing (Six portions)

1/2 C-olive oil
2 T-lemon juice
2 T-orange juice
1 t-onion juice
1/4 t-salt
1/4 t-paprika
1 t-Worcestershire sauce
1/4 t-mustard
1 t-chopped parsley
Place all the above ingredients in a pint fruit jar, fit a rubber on the jar cover, and shake vigorously until the dressing is well mixed and creamy. Pour over tomatoes, asparagus, peas, beans, spinach or lettuce. Serve as a salad."
---A Thousand Ways to Please a Husband, Louise Bennett Weaver and Helen Cowles LcCron [A.L. Burt:New York] 1917 (p. 89)

"Thousand Island dressing, for salads.
Two soupspoonfuls of mayonnaise, one soupspoonful of Chili sauce, one soupspoonful of French dressing, one teaspoonful of chopped pimentos, one-half teaspoonful of chopped olives, salt and pepper, all well mixed. Use a very cold salad bowl."
---Hotel St. Francis Cook Book, Victor Hirtzler [Hotel Monthly Press:Chicago] 1919 (p. 335)

"Thousand Island Dressing (Four portions)

(A modern and popular dressing served much in hotels and tea-rooms)
One-fourth cup lemon juice
One-half cup vegetable or olive oil
One level teaspoon chopped parsley
One-fourth level teasooon ground mustard
One level teaspoon salt
One-fourth level teaspoon Worcestershire Sauce
One-fourth level teaspoon paprika
One level tablespoon chopped onion
Two tablespoons chili sauce.
Mix the ingredients in a glass jar. Cover closely and shake for three minutes. Serve very cold. (Shake again before serving.) Use on head lettuce, cooked asparagus salad or sliced tomatoes.

"Chicago Thousand Island Dressing (Four portions) (A more elaborate Thousand Island Dressing.)
One-fourth level teaspoon mustard
One level teaspoon salt
One-fourth level teaspoon paprika
One level teaspoon Worcestershire Sauce
Two level tablespoons chopped hard-cooked eggs
One level tablespoon chopped green pepper
Two level tablespoons chopped pimientos
One-fourth cup orange juice
One-third cup lemon juice
Two-thirds cup oil
Mix the ingredients in a glass jar or bottle. Cover firmly. Shake vigorously for three minutes. Serve very cold."
---Bettina's Best Salads and What to Serve With Them, Louise Bennett Weaver and Helen Cowles LeCron [A.L. Burt:New York] 1923(p. 41)

Wooden salad bowls
Why do we use wooden salad bowls & when did they become popular in the USA? On first pass, we assumed wooden salad bowls were introduced in the USA post WWII Think: 1960s Scandinavian/Polynesian tiki chic & 1970s/80s wedding gifts. We were wrong.

Are they French?
The French connection is tenuous. Escoffier (1907), Madam E. Saint-Ange (1927), Louis Diat (1941,1946) offer copious notes & several salad recipes. The French advocated rubbing garlic on the side of the salad bowl before adding greens (presumably to enhance flavor) but none comment on the physical properties of the salad bowl.

Great Depression connection?
Historic USA primary sources place wooden salad bowls in the middle of the Great Depression. First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt was a fan but she does not say why. Possibly? Her endorsement inspired national embracement. Print evidence confirms 1930s USA promtion for making
tossed salads in wooden salad bowls. Was this savvy marketing, culinary enlightenment or national nutrition plea?

"Are you tired of salads? Does the lettuce-tomato-cucumber combination weary you even as you think of it? Here are a few suggestions for fairly staple salads that take the place of the meat course in name if not ingredient...Instead of serving the salad in the usual way, kept it in a big wooden salad bowl, line with leaf lettuce or garnished with any available green and let each one help himself."
---"Capital Kitchen," Susan Milds, Washington Post, July 13, 1934 (p. 15)

"Some housekeepers are mixing their colors in the pottery ensembles; blue, green, black and orange pieces, with a huge wooden salad bowl and wooden salad plates."
---"New Table Wares Make Smart Sunday Night Supper Informal Serve-Yourself Affair," Washington Post, September 16, 1934 (p. S6)

"The annual exhibition and Christmas sale of Val-Kill furniture, made at Hyde Park under the supervision of Mrs. Franklin D. Roosevelt and a group of her friends, was opened yesterday morning at the President's home here...Artistically arranged in the living room and library on the second floor of the Roosevelts' house, the Val-Kill pieces included...wooden salad bowls."
---"Holiday Sale Opened by President's Wife," New York Times, November 13, 1934 (p. 21)

"Three grand prizes have been selected for their attractiveness as well as their practicability. The first prize is a handsomely carved and brilliantly decorated wooden salad bowl, with matching wooden serving spoon and for. The colors are resistant in vinegar and other salad ingredients and will remain intact through constant use. The bowl can be used for salads served at the table or as an effective background or fruit or vegetable centerpiece for the dining-room table."
---"3 Grand Prizes to be Awarded in New Recipe Competition," Washington Post, October 15, 1935 (p. 14)

"Although a comparative newcomer to the household, the salad bowl already is an emblem of American hospitality. Generous of size as a rule, and filled with attractively arranged and appetizing combinations of fruits or vegetables, it bids fair to make a place for itself in the American tradition of hospitality similar to that achieved by the samovar in Russia. Wooden salad bowls are the most popular here and whether yours is made of fine, matched woods or roughly hewn or cheaper material, it must be treated according to the traditions established for it. First, rub a tiny piece of garlic around its inner surface. The bowl must never be washed. Instead, wipe it thoroughly with a dry towel."
---"Salad Bowl Is an Emblem of Hospitality," Washington Post, May 2, 1936 (p. 13)

"Crisp, crinkly and delectably cool--they're something about a salad prepared at the table or carried in from the kitchen that wins a vote for green toss-ups. As an inspiration to salad-tossers, the shops show a tempting line-up of bowls in wood, glass, pottery and china with wooden spoons and fork accompaniments. Experts insist that the wood bowl is the thing, as it is less likely to bruise the tender greens. According to an old tradition, the wooden salad bowl should never be washed. If this is against your idea lf cleanliness, compromise by washing with warm water, but never with soap-suds. Mixed greens top the list for summer piquancy. Fresh young leafy greens, besides leaf and head lettuce, such as chicory, endive, kale, escarole, water cress, romaine, dandelion greens, beet tops, parsley, spinach, Swiss chard and green and red cabbage are all naturals for the salad bowl. Carrots, white turnips and parsnips are also vegetables to give tang and color to the salad and also a crunch quality. For garnish, or even as a part of the salad proper, red radishes, tomatoes, chives, cucumbers and onions are all vegetables that like each other's company. For the extras which may be added to the dressing, or as a garnish, there is parsley , green pepper, ripe or green olives, pickles, anchovies, hard cooked eggs, and even pomegranate seeds. Salad epicures agree that the best dressing for the salad bowl is French, and that it should be mixed through the ingredients and not drizzled over the top. Don't miss the fun of mixing your own dressing some time, although there are excellent dressings on the market. A chief 'must' in the green salad is a faint trace of garlic. Rub a clove of it around the bowl before dripping in the greens, or it may be shaken in the bottle with the dressing. The French custom is to rub a crust of dry bread with the sliced clove leaving the bread in the bowl until the tossing is finished. Don't ever chop garlic and add it as another ingredient. The key to salad success is to have everything crisp and cold. Prepare things at least an hour in advance and chill in the refrigerator until ready to serve. Tear of break the ingredients into bits, but not so fine as to give a chopped-up look. Hash is a grand dish, but not in the salad bowl."
---"Salad Season Calls Forth 'Mix-Your-Own' Enthusiasts," Washington Post, May 19, 1939 (p. 19)

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3 January 2015