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Food Timeline>historic American Christmas dinner menus

colonial America...pioneer USA...1870s...1880s...1890s...1900s... 1910s...1920s...1930s...1940s... 1950s...1960s...1970s...1980s...1990s

The following menus, both authentic and extrapolated, represent a progression of Anglo-perspective American Christmas dinners from the 17th century to the 1970s. They are prescriptive visions on the Christmas tables of melting-pot America. Then, as today, you would be hard-pressed to find a Christmas table laden with all the festive dishes suggested in popular cookbooks and magazines. The true American Christmas feast honors traditional holiday favorites from all points of the globe. While some people feast on roast beef and mashed potatoes, others celebrate with baccala and lasagne. Histories of selected popular Christmas foods. Then, as today, home cooks reconcile family tradition with contemporary suggestions and economic challenges. At the end of the day? Most of us cook what we know.

Hoping to recreate a Christmas dinner served in a specific place & time? Let us know!

17TH CENTURY ENGLAND/COLONIAL AMERICA
Cookbooks at this time were written by and for the wealthy. The following menu reflects what an English nobleman might have served his guests at Christmas. Some early American settlers might have considered these foods "traditional" holiday fare, even though they probably set a simpler table. Note: Not all colonial-era Christian Americans celebrated Christmas. Think:
Puritan Pilgrims & Quakers and Scotch-Irish Presbyterians.

[1685]
"A Bill of Fare for Christmas Day, and how to set the Meat in Order.
: Oysters. 1. A collar of brawn. 2. Stewed Broth of Mutton marrow bones. 3. A grand Sallet. 4. A pottage of caponets. 5. A breast of veal in stoffado. 6. A boil'd partridge. 7. A chine of beef, or surloin roast. 8. Minced pies. 9. A Jegote of mutton with anchove sauce. 10. A made dish of sweet-bread. 11. A swan roast. 12. A pasty of venison. 13. A kid with a pudding in his belly. 14. A steak pie. 15. A hanch of venison roasted. 16. A turkey roast and stuck with cloves. 17. A made dish of chickens in puff paste. 18. Two bran geese roasted, one larded. 19. Two large capons, one larded. 20. A Custard.

"The second course for the same Mess. Oranges and Lemons. 1. A Young lamb or kid. 2. Two couple of rabbits, two larded. 3. A pig souc't with tongues. 4. Three ducks, one larded. 5. Three pheasants, 1 larded. 6. A Swan Pye. 7. Three brace of partridge, three larded. 8. Made dish in puff paste. 9. Bolonia sausages, and anChoves, mushrooms, and Cavieate, and pickled oysters in a dish. 10. Six teels, three larded. 11. A Gammon of Westphalia Bacon. 12. Ten plovers, five larded. 13. A quince Pye, or warden pye. 14. Six woodcocks, 3 larded. 15. A standing Tart in puff-paste, preserved fruits, Pippins &c. 16. A dish of Larks. 17. Six dried neats tongues. 18. Sturgeon. 19. Powdered Geese. Jellies."
---The Accomplisht Cook, Robert May, facsimile 1685 edition [Prospect Books:Devon] 2000 (pages unnumbered)

1700-1839--COLONIAL & EARLY AMERICA
Most late 18th and early 19th century cookbooks do not contain menus or "bills of fare," except, perhaps by season. What we know about Christmas dinners in this period is gleaned primarily from journals, letters, household inventories, and other primary sources. Most of the following menus are drawn by culinary historians and gifted chefs who have endeavored to replicate authentic period meals. Many contain modernized recipes.

[1770s]
Christmas Day:
Wassail, Cheese Wafers, Williamsburg Inn Chilled Crab Gumbo, Roast Young Tom Turkey, Fresh Mushroom Dressing, King's Arms Tavern Creamed Celery with Pecans, Heart of Lettuce, Russian Dressing, Eggnogg Pie and/or Ambrosia, Mince Pie with Rum Butter Sauce."
---The Williamsburg Cookbook, Traditional and Contemporary Recipes Initially Compiled and Adapted by Letha Booth and the Staff of Colonial Williamsburg with Commentary by Joan Parry Dutton, updated and enlarged [Colonial Williamsburg Foundation:Williamsburg VA] 1975 (p. 15)
[NOTE: Christmas in Colonial Virginia, Colonial Williamsburg]

[1770s]
Holiday menu at City Tavern, Philadelphia: Colonial inspired modern menu

[1790s]
"Christmas Dinner at Mount Vernon: An Onion Soup Call'd the King's Soup, Oysters on the Half Shell, Broiled Salt Roe Hering, Boiled Rockfish, Roast Beef and Yorkshire Pudding, Mutton Chops, Roast Suckling Pig, Roast Turkey with Chestnut Stuffing, Round of Cold Boiled Beef with Horse-radish Sauce, Cold Baked Virginia Ham, Lima Beans, Baked Acorn Squash, Baked Celery with Slivered Almonds, Hominy Pudding, Candied Sweet Potatoes, Cantaloupe Pickle, Spiced Peaches in Brandy, Spiced Cranberries, Mincemeat Pie, Apple Pie, Cherry Pie, Chess Tarts, Blancmange, Plums in Wine Jelly, Snowballs, Indian Pudding, Great Cake, Ice Cream, Plum Pudding, Fruits, Nuts, Raisins, Port, Madeira."
---The American Heritage Cookbook and Illustrated History of American Eating & Drinking, American Heritage Magazine [American Heritage Publishing Co.:New York] 1964 (p. 420)
Christmas at Mount Vernon/George Washington

[1810]
Christmas at Monticello/Thomas Jefferson

19th century--PIONEERS

Christmas menus reflect traditonal foods of the celebrant's original culture. In all times and places, the foods served for this holiday (and ingredients used) reflect the very best possible items available to the family. As you can imagine, pioneer American Christmas menus varied greatly. Christmas menus depended upon:

General popular Christmas foodstuffs of the period included roast beef, turkey, ham, potatoes, pickles, fine white bread, fruitcakes, cookies, pies. Oysters were treasured. Tinned oysters were available in some major cities but were expensive. Some families might have been able to afford them; others not. Chocolate, tea, and coffee were likewise imported and not always available. Most of what we know about pioneer era Christmas tables is gleaned from primary sources: letters, journals, peronal inventories, etc. Period cookbooks and menus only serve as period guides. If you need this information for a child's report, we recommend
  • The Little House Cookbook: Frontier Foods from Laura Ingalls Wilder's Classic Stories/Barbara M. Walker. Your local public librarian will be happy to help you obtain a copy. If you are researching this topic for a college project (or constructing a historic menu for a museum, writing a book) we suggest you contact the foodways experts at Conner Prarie, IN (living history museum circa 1830s). In addition to identifying menus/foods, they can also advise on cooking utensils and methods. If you have a specfic target location in mind, the local historical society is generally your best first contact. We can help identify the organization if you wish.

    [1847]
    "To Arrange a Christmas Dinner.
    Place a high pyramid of evergreens (made as before directed) in the centre of the table. Let a roasted turkey of uncommon size occupy the middle or centre of one side of the table, on one end let there be a cold boiled ham, and at the other, fricasseed chicken or a roast pig; with the turkey serve mashed potatoes and turnips, boiled onions and dressed celery, or other salad with apple sauce--near the ham place fried or mashed potatoes and pickles or mangoes: and with the pig or fricassee, the same as with the turkey; large pitchers of sweet cider (or where that is not desired, ice water) should be placed diagonally opposite each other, on two corners of the table; boiled turkey with oyster sauce may occupy the place of the fricassee, or instead, a fine oyster pie. For dessert, there should be only two very large and ornamental mince pies, one sufficiently large that each of the company may be helped from it, in token of common interest, is desirable. Ice creams and jellies and jams and ripe fruits and nuts, with sweet cider and syrup water of different sorts, or wines, complete the dessert. Biscuit and jelly sandwich may be served at dessert, or paste puffs and charlotte de russe or blancmange with strands of jelly."
    ---American System of Cookery, Mrs. T. J. Crowen [T.J. Crowen:New York] 1847 (p. 404-5)

    [1847]
    "Christmas dinner.--Roast turkey; cranberry sauce; boiled ham; turnips; beets; winter-squash--Mince pies.
    New Year's dinner.--A pair of roast geese with apple sauce; smoked tongue; turnips; cold-slaw; winter-squash--Plum pudding.

    "Christmas and New Years' dinners.--Boiled turkey with oyster sauce; two roast geese with apple sauce; roasted ham; chicken pie; stewed beets; cold-slaw; turnips; salsify; winter-squash--Plum pudding; mince pie; lemon custards; cranberry pie.
    Roast turkey with cranberry sauce; boiled fowls with celery sauce; boiled ham; goose pie; turnips; winter-squash; salsify; cold-slaw; beets--Mince pudding boiled; lemon pudding baked; pumpkin pudding.
    Mock turtle soup; roast turkey with cranberry sauce; boiled turkey with celery sauce; roasted ham; smoked tongue; chicken curry; oyster pie; beets; cold-slaw; winter-squash; salsify; fried celery--Plum pudding; mince pie; calves'-feet jelly; blanc-mange.
    SOURCE: The Lady's Receipt Book/Eliza Leslie [Philadelphia: 1847] (p. 382-383)
    [NOTE: Ms. Leslie offered two Christmas menus: one simple and the other elaborate. Possibly? Reconciling Quaker tastes with Anglican expectations.]

    [1870]
    Christmas Dinner, Jennie June's American Cookery Book

    [1880]
    "Christmas Dinners.
    Clam soup; baked fish, Hollandaise sauce; roast turkey with oyster dressing and celery or oyster sayce, roast duck with onion sauce, broiled quail, chicken pie; plum and crab-apple jelly; baked potatoes in jackets, sweet potatoes, baked squash, turnips, southern cabbage, stewed carrots, canned corn, canned pease, tomatoes; Graham bread, rolls; salmon salad or herring salad, Chili sauce, gooseberry catsup, mangoes, pickled cabbage; bottled, French or Spanish pickles; spiced nutmeg-melon and sweet- pickled grapes, and beets; Christmas plum-pudding with sauce, charlotte-russe; cocoa-nut, mince, and peach pies; citron, pound, French loaf, white Mountain and Neapolitan cakes; lady's fingers, peppernuts; centennial drops, almond or hickory-nut macaroons; cocoa-nut caramels, chocolate drops; orange or pine apple ice cream; coffee, tea, and Vienna chocolate."
    ---Buckeye Cookery and Practical Housekeeping, revised and enlarged [Buckeye Publishing Company:Minneapolis MN] 1880 (p. 350-351)

    [1886]
    "Christmas Dinner
    This table should be laid as for any other company dinner, the necessary adjuncts being at had on the sideboard or another table, as heretofore directed. It is a modern fancy to introduce a centre cloth of embroidered linen, or squares and ovals of plush, on which the epergne is set; but practical housekeepers would generally prefer a low dish of ferns or scarlet geraniums mingled with white carnations, having for a base a round mirror whose outer edge could be hidden under a wreath of evergreen, and upon whose surface some stray leaves or blossoms have fallen as if by accident. In cities and towns, where raw oysters can be had, they are often used as a first course. They should be opened and the shell washed an hour or so before dinner, and be put in a cold place. When wanted for the table, if one has not proper oyster-plates, arrange six of these shells, with an oyster in each, on a dessert-plate, with the narrow part of the shell inward, all meeting in the centre, where two or three slices of lemon are laid. Small crackers are passed, in addition to the bread on the napkin, and the pepper and the salt should be within reach. The second course may be breaded mutton-chops, accompanied with canned French peas. A haunch of venison and boiled cauilflower, with drawn butter poured over the latter, would make an acceptable second course. The venison should be purchased several days in advance and hung in a cool place, and should be washed off five or six times with vinegar. On Christmas morning it should be washed with warm water, with a dash of cold water at the last. The wipe perfectly dry and enclose it in a covering of dough made of flour and water rolled into a thickness of not more than half an inch. Encase this in two layers of white wrapping-paper and secure with a string. Fill a dripping-pan a third full of hot water and baste ofen, adding to it from the tea-kettle as it evaporates. Frequent basting will keep the paper from scorching; and when thorougly cooked--which will require from two to three hours--take form the oven about three-fourths of an hour before dinner, remove all the coverings, rub well with butter and dredge with flour, and then return to the oven. Repeat this butter-basting two or three times, till the meat is nicely browned and a 'glaze' formed. Garnish the venison with alternate slices of lemon and pickled beet-root. Season the gravy with a large spoonful of currant jelly and the juice of half a lemon. Other suitable vegetables to be passed with venison are mashed turnips, mashed potato, or sweet potato. If a turkey is thorugh to be a necessitiy to complete the Christmas dinner, he should be perpared for the table as directed on page 119. When dihsed, it will be an improvement to garnish him with oysters carefully crumbed and fried. Cranberry sauce should be passed with roast turkey. Chicken salad may follow this course, cheese and crackers coming next. Everything save the ornamental centre- pice will now be removed from the table, and the crumbs brushed from the cloth, making the entrance of the mince-pies, fruits, nuts, and raisins now in order. Ices will be reslished after highly-seasoned pastried, and light fancy cakes may be passed with them. Oranges, grapes, and the late pears are ordinarily offered, and last of all should com the little cups of black coffee, accompanied by cream and sugar. it sould be of good strength, as we fuly assent to the statement that 'well-bred and sensible people do not affect pale and watery decoctions after a hearty dinner.'"
    ---Kansas Home Cook-Book consisting of recipes contributed by ladies of Leavenworth and other cities and towns, compiled by Mrs. C.H. Cushing and Mrs. B. Gray, facsimile 1886 edition [Creative Cookbooks:Monterey CA] 2001 (p. 33-35)

    [1888]
    "Murray Hill Hotel Christmas Dinner, New York City:
    Cherrystones, Celery, Cream of Artichokes, Florentine, Consomme of Game, Quenelles, Terapene au Madere, Small Patties of Oyster Crabs, Fillet of Beef, Braise, Lithuanienne, Potatoes, Sprouts, Breast of Partridge, Truffle a la Toulouse, Timbale of Sweetbread, Victoria, Fresh Mushrooms on Toast, Punch a la Russe, Christmas Beef, Yorkshire Pudding, Turkey with Chestnuts, Canvas Back, Stuffed Quail, Samp Fritters, Lettuce, Asparagus, Hollandaise, French Peas, Baked Cauliflower, Plum Pudding Polonaise, Mince Pie, Nesselrode, Fantasie, Cream a la Moscovite, Marsala Jelly, Assorted Cakes, Fruits Glaces, Cheese, Fruits, Coffee."
    ---"Tempting the Gourmands: Hotel Menus Appealing to Eye and Palate," The New York Times, December 26, 1888 (p. 8)

    [1890]
    Christmas Day, It has been our custom, as well as the custom of other household writers, to devote much time to Christmas dinners, their bills of fare and preparations, entirely losing sight of the fact that most people eat three times a day on Christmas, as well as on other days of the year, so in this article we will give three bills of fare. Let the breakfast be simple, plain and nutritious, served early, as on this morning the children of the house usually arise early, and a late breakfast makes too short a space before the heavy dinner, and the children, in consequence, suffer for perhaps a week to come from indigestion, cuase by cramping, and, by the way, I think as a rule Christmas dinners are too heavy to be thorougly enjoyed and digested. We are living in the days of civilization and refinement, and not in the days of King Richard II, at whose table thirty courses were served at a Christmas dinner and it is said that the fragments that remained were more than sufficient to serve a thousand persons. Of coruse, great numbers were invited; but imagine the waste and the heavy laden table with such a quantity of left over. The feast given in Westminster Hall, in 1399, was such a large and coarse affair, that twenty-six oxen, three hundred sheep, besides fowls without number, were put upon the table and consumed.

    Breakfast, at 8 o'clock Fruits, Breaded Chops, Tomato Sauce, Baked Potatoes, Buckwheat Cakes, Maple Syrup, Coffee.
    Dinner at 2 o'clock Oysters on Half Shell, Almond Milk Soup with Rice, Salted Almonds, Celery, Olives, Halibut baked with fine Herbs, English Drawn Butter, Persian Potatoes, Roast Trukey, Cranberry Sauce, Rice Croquettes, Asparagus Tips, Braised Duck, Baked Macaroni, Lettuce Salad, Wafers, Brie, English Plum Pudding, Brandy Sauce, Coffee, Nuts, Fruits, Sugar Plums.
    Supper, at 8 o'clock Raw Oysters, Chicken Sandwiches, Coffee, Jelly, Cake."
    ---Table Talk, December 1890 (p. 459)

    [1896]
    Christmas Dinner, Fannie Farmer's Boston Cooking School Cook Book

    [1897]
    "Christmas Dinner:
    Oysters on the Half Shell, Clear Soup, Custard and Spinach Blocks, Olives, Celery, Deviled Spaghetti, Roasted Turkey, Chestnut Stuffing, Cranberry Jelly, Sweet Potato Croquettes, Peas Served in Turnip Cups, Ginger Sherbet, Lettuce Salad, Cheese Balls, Toasted Crackers, Plum Pudding, Hard Sauce, Coffee, Bonbons, Almonds.--The Ladies' Home Journal, December 1897"
    ---Savory Suppers & Fashionable Feasts: Dining in Victorian America, Susan Williams [Pantheon Books:New York] 1985 (p. 201)

    [1900]
    "Christmas Dinner
    Clam or Oyster Soup, Celery, Baked Fish, Hollandaise Sauce, Roast Turkey, Oyster Dressing, Celery or Oyster Sauce, Roast Duck, Onion Sauce, Baked Potatoes, Sweet Potatoes, Baked Squash, Mashed Turnips, Canned Corn, Stewed Tomatoes, Graham Bread, Rolls, Salmon or other Salad, Plum Pudding, Peach Pie, Fruit, Nuts, Coffee and Chocolate."
    ---Queen of the Household, Mrs. M. W. Ellsworth [Ellsworth & Brey:Detroit MI] 1900 (p. 531)

    [1901]
    "Christmas
    --Breakfast: Breakfast cakes--any kind, maple syrup, breaded pork chops, tomato sauce, Saratoga chips, oranges. Dinner: Clam soup, roat pig, lobster salad, apple sauce, green peas, canned corn, sweet potatoes, celery, mashed potatoes, currant or plum jelly, pickles, plum pudding, fruit cake, fruits in season, raisins, nuts. Supper: Cold roast pig, escalloped oysters, raspberry jam, Vienna rolls and honey."
    ---The Woman's Exchange Cook Book: A New and Complete American Culinary Encyclopedia, MRs. Minnie Palmer [W.B. Conkey Company:Chicago IL] 1901 (p.18)

    [1903]
    "Christmas Day Dinner:
    Oysters on Half Shell, Game Soup, Boiled White Fish, Sauce Maitre d'Hotel, Roast Goose, Apple Sauce, Boiled Potatoes, Mashed Turnips, Creamed Parsnips, Stewed Onions, Boiled Rice, Lobster Salad, Canvas Back Duck, Christmas Plum Pudding, Sauce, Vanilla Ice-cream, Mince Pie, Orange Jelly, Delicate Cake, Salted Almonds, Confectionery, Fruits, Coffee."
    ---The White House Cook Book, Hugo Zieman and Mrs. F. L. Gilette [Saafield Publishing Co.:New York] 1903 (p. 478)

    [1905]
    "Christmas Menus
    For the ordinary company dinner all sorts of novelties are looked for and bills of fare are made as unique as possible. Not so much with the Christmas dinner; it has remained unchanged for many generations. Christmas would not be Chritams without the turkey or goose, plum pudding and sugar-plums. The pudding for the feast should be made at least two months before the occasion, and put away to ripen and become mellow and rich. Not so the candies; they should be as fresh as possible, not more than a day old, and should be kept in tin boxes and in a dry place. Cranberry jelly will be made always the day before. The turkey drawn and hung in a cold place for at least one day before roasting. If turkey or goose cannot be procured, a large chicken will answer very well. A fruit pudding is less expensive than plum pudding, but must be palatable and well made. The perfect menu combines the luxuries of the season without great expenditure of either time or money. Dinner should not be so elaborate that it is entirely beyond the capacity of the cook or the housewife to whom the preparation is assigned. Select vegetables that are in season. Use holly, cedar and mistletoe for decorations, or ground pine and partridge berry. Do not use roses or other hot-house flowers, as they are entirely inappropriate.

    "Oyster Cocktails, Crackers, Consomme a la Royal, Bread Sticks, Celery, Olives, Mushroom Patties, Roasted Turkey, Giblet Sauce, Cranberry Punch, Sweet Potato Croquettes, Creamed Onions, Broiled Birds, Chicory Salad, Plum Pudding, Brandy Sauce, Toasted Crackers, Camembert, Coffee.

    "Cherry-stone Oysters in Beds of Cress, Consomme a la Royal, Broiled Slamon, Lobster Sauce, Parisienne Potatoes, Turkey, Chestnut Stuffing, Cranberry Sauce, Boiled Rice, Creamed Onions, Shaddock Sherbet, Canvas-back Duck, Fox Grape Jelly, Lettuce Salad, French Dressing, Mince Pie, Pumpkin Custard, Nuts, Raisins, Fruits, Coffee.

    "Cream of Corn Soup, Chicen Pie, Roasted Beef, Brown Sauce, Baked Sweet Potatoes, Spinach, Celery, Plum Pudding, Hard Sauce, Nuts, Bobons, Raisins, Toasted Crackers, Cheese, Coffee." ---Mrs. Rorer's Every Day Menu Book, Sarah Tyson Rorer [Arnold and Company:Philadelphia PA] 1905 (p. 247-250)

    [1906]
    "Menu-Christmas:
    Breakfast: Oranges, Germia, Broiled Salt Mckerel, Chipped Beef on Toast, Baked Potatoes, Griddle Cakes, Muffins, Coffee...Dinner: Oysters on Half Shell, Cream Chicken Soup, Boiled Whitefish, sauce Maitre d'Hotel, Roast Goose, apple sauce, Boiled Potatoes, Mashed Turnips, Sweet Potatoes, Christmas Plum Pudding, Lemon Ice, Squash Pie, Quince Jelly, Delicate Cake, Salted Almonds, Fruit, Coffee...Supper: Cold Roast Goose, Oyster Patties, Cold Slaw, Charlotte Russe, Popovers, Currant Jelly."
    ---The Blue Ribbon Cook Book, Annie R. Gregory [Monarch Book Company:Chicago] 1906 (p. 33)

    "Half a million residents of Chicago will eat Christmas dinner in the hotels, restaurants, chop houses, hash houses and barrel houses of the city.", Chicago Daily Tribune, December 23, 1906 (p. F9)

    [1908]
    "It is not so much the question this year what shall we have for our Christmas dinner as what shall we not have or rather what shall we dispense with to save expenses, as prices of food products are tremendous...we are Americans up to date and dominated largely by the 'New Thouts,' one of the principle of which is self-denial. So as Americans we will serve the best Christmas dinner we cna afford and have enough for ourselves and our friends, without be in overextravagant. Besides a good dinner a little will be spent for Christmas greens and flower to decorate the table and the house...Here are four menus as suggestions for the Christmas dinner... Menu No. 1. Lynn Havens, Half Shell, Celery, Olives, Chicken Soup, Deviled Crabs, Eu Coqueille, Hothouse Cucumbers, Roast Sirloin or Prime Ribs of Beef, Seasoned Potatoes, Romaine Salad, Spinach, Roquefort Cheese, Toasted Biscuits and Wafers, Plum Pudding, Brandy Sauce, Ice Cream, Fruit, Nuts, and Raisins, Coffee.
    Menu No. 2. Grape Fruit, Green Turtle Soup Clear, Radishes, Sliced Tomatoes, Boiled Striped Bass, Sauce HOllandaise, Bermuda Potatoes, Roast Saddle of Canada Mutton, Currant Jelly, Jerusalem Artichokes, Cream Sauce, Stuffed Green Peppers, Pineapple Punch, Broiled Squab, Lettuce Salad, Celery and Stilton Cheese, Biscuit Tortoni, Fruit, Nuts, Rasisins, Coffee.
    Menu No. 3. Cream of Oysters, Olives, Sapted Pecans, Crabflakes au Gratin, Roast Turkey, Cranberry Jelly, Country Sausages, Mashed Potatoes, Boiled Onions, Celery Salad, Toasted Wafers, Edam Cheese, Deep Dish Apple Pie, Ice Cream, Coffee.
    Menu No. 4. Iced Oranges, Cream of Celery, Roast Goose, Apple Sauce, Mashed Potatoes, Fresh String Beans, Grape Fruit, Salad, Nechatel Cheese, Toasted Wafers, Cream Tapioca Pudding, Plum Jelly, Coffee...

    "...the dinner serve form Menu 1 costs at least $4 more for six persons than it did five years ago...Menu 2 will cost just about double the price it would have five years ago. The first item, grapefruit, is very expensive...cannot be bought for less than 30 cents... With the exception of the turkey and sausages, the items on Menu No. 3 will cost but little more than they have in five years...Menu No. 4 is a very simple one, and, wiht the exception of the goose, will be comparatively inexpensive. Get a Boston goose. It will cost 30-- perhaps 35--cents a pound, but every one is guaranteed and the Boston bird is the only goose brought to the New York market fit to eat."
    ---"Problem of That Christmas Dinner: One Must Have Variety, So Here Are Four Ideas Which Do ot Follow Tradition Too Closely," New York Times, December 20, 1908 (p. SM8)

    "$5 Xmas Dinner for Six Plates
    Here is a Christmas menu, traditionally English in its main features, but embellished with a few up to date American frills. The entire cost of it is covered by one of Uncle Sam's five dollar bills:--
    Grape Fruit or Oyster Canpes, Pickled Pears (home made), Celery, Oxtail or Mick Turtle Soup, Roast Green Goose with Apple Sauce, or Roast Sirloin of Beef with Browned Potatoes and Yorkshire Pudding, Mashed Irish Potatoes or Baked Sweet, Boiled Onions with Cream Sauce, Roman Punch (home made), Roast Pigeons, Orange and Endive Salad, Pippins and Cheese, Plum Pudding with Brandy Sauce, Syllabub, Nuts, Raisiiiins, Coffee (demi-tasse)."
    ---Then Evening Telegram Cook Book>, Emma Paddock Telford [Cupples & Leon:New York] 1908 (p. 205)

    [1909]
    "A Christmas Dinner.
    Grape Fruit or Consomme, Celery, Olives, Mock Goose, Apple Sauce, Baked Onions, Rice, Apple Salad, French Dressing, Wafers, Plum Pudding, Orange Sauce, Coffee, Candies, Fruits, Nuts."
    ---Mrs. Rorer's Vegetable Cookery and Meat Substitutes, Sarah Tyson Rorer [Arnold and Company:Philadelphia] 1909 (p. 315)

    [1911]
    "Christmas Diunner Menu No. 1:
    Sardine Cocktail, Chicken Consomme with Oysters, Pulled Bread, Olives, Salted Pecans, Spanish Mackerel, Jaffa, Dressed Cucumbers, Roast Goose, Potato Stuffing, Apple Baskets, Sweet Potatoes with Sherry, Cauliflower, Hongroise, Christmas Salad, Cheese Stars, Fruit Pudding, Monroe Sauce, Parfait Armour, Lady Fingers, Bonbons, Toasted Crackers, Roquefort, Cafe Noir."
    ---Catering for Special Occasions with Menus and Recipes, Fannie Merritt Farmer [David McKay:Philadelphia] 1911 (p. 167)

    [1912]
    "The Christmas dinner menu
    was probably made out days ago; mincemeat and plum pudding, perhaps, have been standing on the cupboard shelf for weeks; the butcher has the order for a goose or a turkey or a chiken, as the case may be, and even the vegetables are probably waiting in cellar or pantry to be cooked. But even after the Christmas dinner is cleared away tomorrow, the housewife's worries over the holiday fare are not ended, for there still remains the Christmas supper to plan and prepared... The Christmas supper should be appetizing and satisfying, but it should not be very hearty, and it need not be very expensive. if it is prepared the day beforehand it will prove a true holiday meal, for it will give a well-deserved rest to the cook--be she mistress or maid. A dainty, substantial, and economical supper might consist of a slad, bread and butter, lettuce, cress or jelly sandwiches, fruit, cakes, and tea, coffee, or chocolate. Bouillon in cups or grapefruit to begin with would make this supper more festive and 'filling' and either could be added at a cost of 25 or 30 cents. The sandwiches, of coruse, would have to be put together Christmas afternoon, but they could be planned the day beforehand. The fruit could be washed and dried and arranged in a dish--bananas, oranges, grapes, and apples are inexpensive and seasonable. The cakes could be made and put in the cake box. The grapefruit could be removed from its shell and put in a covered dish on the ice, ready to have sugar added and to be put in sherbet cups at the last minute, or the bouillon could be made, strained, and set aside--all the day beforehand."
    ---"The Housewife's Daily Economy Calendar: Inexpensive Christmas Suppers," Frances Marshall, Washington Post, December 24, 1912 (p. 9)

    [1913]
    "Christmas Dinner
    : Oysters, Mangoes, Celery, Stuffed Olives, Tomato Soup, Roast Turkey, Cranberry Jelly, Roast Sweet Potatoes, Mashed Turnips, Brussels Sprouts, Orange and Celery Salad, Vanilla Blanc-mange, English Plum Pudding, Fruit, Coffee."
    ---A Calendar of Dinners with 615 Recipes, Marion Harris Neil [Procter & Gamble:Cincinnati] 1913 (p. 229)

    [1917]
    "Christmas Dinner, Park Avenue Hotel:
    Blue Points, Cenery, Olives, Cream of Tomato, Roast Vermont Turkey, Cranberry Sauce, Celery Dressing, Hashed Cream Potatoes, Mashed Turnips, Romaine Salad, Plum Pudding, Brandy Sauce or Ice Cream Cake, Demi-tasse."
    ---"No Meat Christmas in the Big Hotels," The New York Times, December 16, 1917 (p. XX8)

    [1919]
    "December 25, Dinner
    : Blue Points, mignonette, Bisque d'ecrevisses, Salted Almonds, Celery, Ripe California olives, Fillet of trout, Cafe de Paris, Sweetbreads braise, au jus, Puree de marrons, Roast goose, apple sauce, Sweet potatoes, Southern style, Pate de foi gras de Strasbourg, Lettuce salad, aux fines herbes, Frozen diplomate pudding, Assorted cakes, Pont l'eveque cheese, Crackers, Nuts and raisins, Coffee."
    ---Hotel St. Francis Cook Book, Victor Hirtzler [Hotel Monthly Press:Chicago] 1919 (p. 383)

    [1920]
    "Christmas Dinner, 4PM:
    Clear Tomato Soup, Celery, Cole Slaw, Tuna Fish a la New berg, Potato Balls, Sliced Cucumbers, Roast Turkey, Game Filling, Brown Gravy, Cranberry Sauce, Candied Sweet Potatoes, Spinach, Corn, Lettuce, Russian Dressing, Individual Plum Puddings, Coffe...-OR-...Celery, Pickles. Olives, Sardine Canape, Bouillon, Miniature Codfish Balls, Tomato Sauce, Parsley Potato Balls, Cucumbers, Baked Sugar-Cured Ham, Currant Jelly, Champagne Style Sauce, Paprika Potatoes, Peas, Asparagus Salad, Delmonte Dressing, Individual Hot Mince Tarts, Coffee."
    ---Mrs. Wilson's Cook Book, Mrs. Mary A. Wilson, instructor of cooking for the U.S. Navy [J.B. Lippincott:Philadelphia] 1920 (p. 469-470)

    [1922]
    "Christmas Day.
    Breakfast Cereal, Cream, Breakfast Apples, Toast, Bacon, Coffee. Dinner Fruit Cocktail, Oyster Soup, Olives, Sweet Pickles, Roast Suckling Pig, Browned Potatoes, Diced Turnips in Hollandaise, Scalloped Tomatoes in Ramekins, Cranberry Apple Sauce, Celery Hearts and Endive Salad, Thousand Island Dressing, Orange Ice, Small Cakes, Nuts, Raisins, Coffee. Supper Chicken Cadillac, Raisin Bread, Caramel Custard, Tea."
    ---Good Housekeeping's Book of Menus, Reicpes and Household Discoveries [Good Housekeeping:New York] Third edition, 1922(p. 49-50)

    [1924]
    "Christmas Dinner:
    No. 1: Oyster Cocktails in Green Pepper Shells, Celery, Ripe Olives, Roast Goose with Potato Stuffing, Apple Sauce, String Beans, Potato Puff, Lettuce Salad with Riced Cheese and Bar-le-Duc French Dressing, Toasted Wafers, English Plum Pudding, Bonbons, Coffee...No. 1: Cream of Celery Soup, Bread Sticks, Salted Peanuts, Stuffed Olives, Roast Beef, Yorkshire Pudding, Potato Souffle, Spinach in Eggs, White Grape Salad with Guava Jelly, French Dressing, Toasted Crackers, Plum Pudding, Hard Sauce, Bonbons, Coffee."
    ---The New Butterick Cook-Book, Flora Rose [Butterick Publishing Company:New York] 1924 (p. 59)

    [1924]
    Vegetarian Christmas menu:
    Macedoine of Fruit, Cream of Mushroom Soup with Croutons, Celery, Radishes, Ripe Olives, Chestnut Pie, Normandy Loaf with Cranberry, Glazed Sweet Potatoes, Creamed Brussels Sprouts, French Salad, Cinnamon Buns, Butter, White Bread, Cream Puffs, Steamed Fruit Pudding, Nuts and Raisins, Minute Brew."
    ---The New Cookery, Lenna Frances Cooper, 9th edition revised [Modern Medicine Publishing Company:Battle Creek MI] 1924 (p. 460-461)
    [NOTES: According to this book, Normandy Loaf was a "mock veal loaf" composed of Protose "a meat substitute made from cereals and nuts, which has the appearance, flavor, composition and fiber of meat; containing the identical nourishing properties and serbving the same dietetic need as meat." (p. 462). Minute Brew was "A cereal coffee made entirely from grains. It is instantly soluble in hot water and dissolves readily in cold water." (p. 464)]

    [1927]
    "A Dainty Christmas Dinner for a not Overinflated Purse.
    Christmas Cocktail, Potage Parmentier, Parmesan Toasterettes, Roast Fowl with Fruit Dressing and Spiced Jelly Sauce, Duchess Potatoes, Moulded Spinach, Hot Cranberry Muffins, Celery-and-Olive Salad in Hubbardstron Cups, Green Mayonnaise, Cinnamon Toast Strips, Jewel Pudding with Whipped Cream, Red-and-Green Frosted Cake, Coffee, Candy, mixed fruit and nuts conclude this dinner."
    ---American Cookery, December 1927 (p. 371)

    "'What shall we have for Christmas dinner?' that is a question that challenges every housewife as the holiday approaches. Certain things she must have--or at least tradition says she must have-as fowl and cranberry sauce, and mince pie or Christmas pudding, and then there are the usual items, but not absolutely required by rule, as stuffing with the fowl, and rich giblet gravy and sweet and Irish potatoes, some kind of salad and fruit cake. It would seem from the foregoing list that Christmas dinner is pretty well prescribed, cut and dried, and requires no thought or planning on the part of the one who is to be responsible for it. This assumption, however, is far from the truth. Greater choice is possible than seems so on the surface, and the feast may be a success or a failure in direct proportion to the wisdom with which it is planned....It is probably impossible to prevent a degree of overeating at Christmas dinner-- we are all 'big children' when it comes to that--but certain precautions may be taken. For instance, the mother of the family may see to it the quality of food materials for her Christmas dinner is of the best, and she may see the big dinner is preceded by a simple breakfast, including pure fruit juices and perhaps a cereal. Whole wheat grain cereal would be excellent, since it prepares the system for the big dinner to come by regulating the eliminating organs and stimulating the system...Now for the Christmas dinner menu itself. A little common sense here will be worth a deal of remedies later. Why not start with a clear soup? This prepares the stomach for the heavy food, does not contribute much food value and helps in preventing overeating by filling the stomach with a light liquid at the start that stimulates the action of the digestive fluids. Chicken turkey or roast pig may follow, with potatoes, baked preferred to other ways of cooking...of serving both sweet and white potatoes, a rather absurd custom, is never more out of place than at the heaviest dinner of the year, so why not dispense with it? Creamed onions, squash and lettuce are important vegetables, full of important minerals without being heavy; they can well have their place at our dinner...We probably will not be sensible enough--most of us won't--to leave our plum pudding and our mince pie till the day after Christmas, when it would have twice the flavor, served with a light main meal. Therefore let us at least remember to serve small portions, to let a little time elapse between these rich desserts and the main meal, and to let them come as late in the meal as possible, after the fruit and nuts...Candy, if it is served, should be purchased with great care, Let is be only what you know to be pure, fresh and well made. The final words of advice for the successful Christmas dinner are: First, eliminate judiciously from the menu--don't overload it; second, have lenty of the lighter vegetables that give bulk without heaviness; third, supply fruit juices; fourth, see that every bit of food is of the best. So we will preserve our Christmas cheer, not only while the food is assailing our eyes and nostrils and is in our mouths, but twelve hours adfterward."
    ---"Making a Christmas Dinner A Lasting, Pleasant Memory," Dr. Daniel R. Hodgdon, Food Investigation Service, Washington post, December 18, 1927 (p. R9)

    [1929]
    "A Christmas Dinner.
    Stuffed Pimientos, Consomme, Croutons, Roast Turkey or Braised Chicken, Mashed Potatoes, Buttered Brussels Sprouts, Piccalilli, Cranberry Sauce, Horseshoe Rolls, Butter, Jellied Coleslaw, Mayonnaise, English Plum Pudding, Maraschino Hard Sauce, Black Coffee.
    ---Mrs. Allen on Cooking, Menus, Service, Ida C. Bailey Allen [Doubleday, Doran & Company:Garden City] 1929 (p. 875)

    [1930]
    "Christmas Dinner. Menu No. I.
    Oyster cocktail, Clear soup, Croutons, Roast turkey, Chestnut dressing, Mashed potatoes, Cranberry ice, Cauliflour, Cheese sauce, Cloverleaf rolls, Butter, Currant jelly, White grape, Green gage plum and nut salad, Plum pudding, Fruit sauce, Coffee, Candy, Salted nuts, Candied Ginger.
    Menu No. II. Fruit Cocktail, Noodle soup, Roast duck, Corn bread dressing, Gravy, Steamed rice, Pickled peaches, Baking powder dumplings, Lettuce, Asparagus tip salad, Minced pie, Grated cheese, Coffee.
    Menu No. III.. Tomato and lemon juice cocktail, Bouillon, Roast tenderloin of pork, Cinnamon pineaple rings, Rissole potatoes, Broccoli, Hollandaise sauce, Light rolls, Butter, Jelly, Apple, Carrot, Celery salad, Vanilla mousse, Fruit Cake, Coffee."
    ---The Chicago Daily News Cook Book, Edith G. Schuck and Dr. Herman N. Bundesen [Chicago Daily News:Chicago IL] 1930 (p. 315)

    [1931]
    "Christmas Dinner No. 1:
    Tomato cocktail, Roast turkey with chestnut stuffing, Giblet gravy, Mashed potatoes, Buttered onions, Spinach or another green vegetable, Cranberry relish, Celery and olives, Grapefruit salad, Plum pudding with hard sauce, Nuts and fruit, Coffee... Christmas Dinner No. 2: Roast chicken or roast pork loin, Browned potatoes, Mashed rutabaga turnip, String beans, Fried pineapple, Celery, Mince pie, Nuts and fruit, Coffee."
    ---Aunt Sammy's Radio Recipes Revised, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Home Economics [Government Printing Office:Washington DC] 1931 (p. 7)

    Christmas Dinner
    Cream of Peanut Butter Soup, Stuffed Roast Trukey, Giblet Gravy, Sweet Potato Balls, Creamed Onions, Scalloped Tomatoes and Spinach, Celery Curls, Ripe and Stuffed Olives, Piccallili, Cranberry Jelly Circles, Pear Salad, Plum Puddng, Sterling and Yellow Sauces, Assorted Crackers, Assorted Cheeses, Crystallized Ginger, Coffee."
    ---Good Housekeeping, [magazine] December 1931 (p. 85)

    [1932]
    "An Old English Christmas Dinner Menu:
    Crystal Coca-Cola Cocktail served in the Living Room, Barley Broth with Saltines, Roast Goose or Young Suckling with Apple Stuffing, Black Currant Jam, Riced Potatoes, Brussels Sprouts, Old Fashioned Cole Slaw, Celery, Pickled Walnuts, Plum Pudding with Hard Sauce, Nuts, Coffee, Fruits."
    ---When You Entertain: What to Do, and How, Ida Baily Allen [Coca-Cola Company:Atlanta GA] 1932 (p. 90)

    "Christmas Dinner 1 (Approximate Cost for 8 persons $3.25)
    Cranberry Cocktail, Crown Roast of Pork, Sweet Potatoes Glace, Spinach de Luxe, Christmas Beeets, Cabbage Salad with Chili-Sauce Dressing, Old-Fashioned Indian Pudding, Vanilla Sauce, Roasted Walnuts, Demi Tasse.
    "Christmas Dinner II (Approximate Cost for 8 persons $4.25)
    Tomato Bouillon, Slow-cooked Roast Beef, Gravy, Mashed Potatoes with Toasted Crumb Topping, Savor Onion Saute, Buttered Squash, Grapefruit and Canned Pear Salad, Plum Pudding, Sterling Sauce, Demi Tasse.
    "Christmas Dinner III (Approximate Cost for 8 persons $7.50)
    Seedless Grape and Canned Raspberry Cocktail, Roast Turkey, Sausage Stuffing, Mashed Potatoes, Giblet Gravy, Creamed Celery, Broccoli with Almond Sauce, Olives, Cranberry Jelly, Christmas Salad with Mayonnaise, Coffee Caramel Ice Cream, Mints, Raisins, Demi Tasse."
    ---Good Housekeeping, December 1932 (p. 86+)

    [1936]
    "Christmas Dinner:
    Oyster Cocktail, Wafers, Clear Soup, with Custard, Celery, Salted Nuts, Roast Goose with Dressing, Applesauce, Glaced Sweet Potatoes, Mashed Potatoes, Baked Squash, Brussels Sprouts with Chestnuts, Cranberry Ring with Grapefruit and Malaga Grape Salad, Plum Pudding Trimmed with Holly, Hard Sauce or Brandy Sauce, Lemon Milk Sherbet, Mince Pie, Mixed Nuts and Raisins, Fruit, Candies, Coffee."
    ---The Settlement Cook Book, Mrs. Simon Kander, 21st Edition Enlarged and Revised [Settlement Cook Book Co.:Milwaukee WI] 1936 (p. 617)

    [1937]
    "Christmas Dinner:
    Crabmeat Cocktail, Roast Goose Sage-onion Dressing, Frozen Spiced Applesauce, Mashed Potatoes, Creamed Turnips, Celery, Stuffed Olives, Plum Pudding, Hard Sauce, Salted Nuts, Mints, Coffee."
    ---America's Cook Book, Home Institute of The New York Herald Tribune [Charles Scribner's Sons:New York] 1937 (p. 861)

    [1938] "Chistmas day tastes are as divergent as like and dislikes in the matter of dress. To satisfy the most goumret-minded as well as the lover of appetizing holiday foods working on a budget, the following menus have been devised. The business girl or beachelor has not been overooked either, for a special easy time-saving meny and recipe is included for those in apartmet house solitary confinement.
    Poor Man's Dinner: Hot spiced cider, Roast stuffed chicken, Savory giblet gravy, Mashed potatoes Creamed green geans and celery, Mixed green salad, Cranberry jelly, Sour ccreaam dressing, Crispy hard rolls, Country butter, Pumpkin and peanut pudding, Hot coffee.
    Rich Man's Menu: Cream of almond soup, Cheese stars, Ripe olives, Celery filled with pimieto cheese, Roast stuffed goose or Virginia Tom turkey, Apple and raisin stuffing, Brown gravy, Baked spiced oraanges, Cranberry nut sauce, Sweet potato puffs, Buttered peas, Tiny baking powder biscuits, Butter, Persimmon salad with French dressing, Hot coffee, Fresh pineapple parfait, Paper-thin fruit cake slices.
    Busybodies' Menus: Baked bean soup, Cocktail frankurter garnish, Baked spiced ham slices, Cinnamon apples, Pan browned potatoes, Buttered Brussel sprouts, Nut fruit muffins, Orange marmalade, Romaine and chhicory salad tossed at table, Compote of fresh fruits in honey, Spiced hot nuts Christmas coockies, Demi tasse."
    ---"Christmas Dinner Menus," Washington Post, December 23, 1938 (p. 16)
    [NOTE: Recipe for Baked bean soup (only) included.]

    "Menu for Christmas (Menu Pour Le Noel)
    Breakfast Sliced Oranges, Boiled Grits and Cream, Celery, Olives, Radishes, Fried Croakers, Sauce a la Tartare, Potato Chips, Broiled Lamb Chops, Small Hominy, Corn Cakes, Butter, Louisiana Syrup, Cafe au Lait,The Times-Picayune (newspaper).
    Dinner Bayou Cook Oysters, Cream of Celery Soup, Spanish Olives, Celery, Young Onions Pickled, Radishes, Salted Almonds, Bouillabaisse (Red Snapper and Red fish), Louisiana Rice, Potatoes au Beurre Matire d'Hotel, Vol-au-Vent of Pigeons, Green Peas Buttered, Souffle of Bananas au Rhum or Maraschino, Punch, Roast Turkey, Cranberry Sauce, Stuffed Tomatoes, Artichokes au Buerre Matire d'Hotel, Sliced Cucumbers au Vinaigrette, Asparagus, Broiled Snipe on Toast, Pouding a la Reine, Wine Sauce, Mince Pie, Apple Pie, Strawberry Ice, Bouchees, Massepains, Petits Fours, Assorted Fruits, Assorted Nuts, Raisins, Bonbons a la Creole, Edam Cheese or Roquefort, Water Crackers, Cafe Noir...
    Supper Cold Turkey, Tomato Salad, Crackers, Cake, Marmalade of Apricots, Cheese, Fruit, Tea."
    ---The Original Picauyne Creole Cook Book, ninth edition, reprinted from the fifth edition [Times-Picaune Publishing Co.:New Orleans LA] 1938 (p. 414)

    [1939]
    "Christmas.
    Celery, Oysters on the Half Shell, Olives, Bouillon or Essence of Tomato, Melba Toast, Roast Goose, Savory Stuffing or Little Roast Pig, Mashed Potatoes, Creamed Onions, Apple and Grape Salad, Mince Pie or Plum Pudding, Hard and Liquid Sauce, Black Coffee."
    ---Boston Cooking School Cook Book, Fannie Merritt Farmer [Little Brown:Boston] 1939 (p. 13)

    [1940]
    "Family Christmas Dinner:
    Grape Juice--Ginger Ale Cup, Cheese Popcorn, Roast Goose or Turkey, Gravy, Mashed Potatoes, Peas, Cranberry Relish, Olives, Celery, Green Salad, Rolls, Jellied Raspberry Grapefruit or Plum Pudding, Coffee."
    ---Young America's Cook Book: A Cook Book for Boys and Girls Who Like Good Food, Compiled by The Home Institute of the New York Herald Tribune [Charles Scribner's Sons:New York] 1940 (p. 226)

    [1942]
    "Christmas Dinner, The White House:
    Oyster cocktail, Clear soup with sherry, Roast turkey, Chestnut dressing, Cranberry jelly, Deerfoot sausage, Beans, Cauliflower au gratin, Casserole sweet potatoes with orange, Grapefruit and avacado salad, Plum pudding, Hard sauce, Coffee."
    ---"White House Menu Today," The New York Times, December 25, 1942 (p. 9)

    [1944]
    "Christmas Dinner I
    : Cranberry Sherbet, Roast Turkey, Oyster Stuffing, Sweet Potatoes, Piquante Spinach with Beets, Grapefruit and Celery Salad, Christmas Plum Pudding, Foamy Sauce, Coffee.--Christmas Dinner II: Roast Duck, Creole Rice Stuffing, Buttered Squash, Brussels Sprouts, Celery, Carrot Sticks, Olives, Orange Milk Sherbet, Mixed Nuts, Coffee."
    ---Good Housekeeping Cookbook, completely revised edition [Farrar & Rinehart:New York] 1944 (p. 375)

    [1945]
    "While some of us will celebrate Christmas by gathering around a holly decked table laden with turkey, cranberry sauce and a flaming plum pudding, a very different sort of feast will ber enjoyed in those New York homes where families of European origin carry on their native traditions. Those of Italian descent, for example, will sit down tonight to an eight or nine course dinner that in all probablility will last through to Christmas Day. One thing that characterizes most continental festivities, in fact, is the serving of the chief Yuletide meal on Chrstmas Eve. Among the most important of the special foods that appear at the dinner is capitoni, which usually follows a broth. It consists of fried eels, of which Italians are especially fond. City markets are well stocked with the species, and, fortunately, the eels are more reasonably priced today that in times past, when they sold at auction for as much as $1 a pound. Brought in alive from Canada, Long Island and the South, they're kept in tanks by dealers and sold alive, too. A special Christmas loaf called panettone, a cross between bread and ckae, always finds its way at this season into Itlaian homes, where it provides a between meal refreshment, served with wine or coffee. Made with a yeast dough, it contains raisins, citron, orange peel and nuts, and is flavored with anise. Zampieri Brothers, 17 Corniela Street, sells the loaf for 50 cents a pound, and it cane be found in most Italian neighborhood bakeries as well for about the same price. To get back to the meal, the next thing to appear on the table after the fish is capitelli, a noodle dough shaped like a cone and stuffed with chopped chicken and pork mixed with eggs and spices. Each cone stands about an inch high and a dressing of fruits, mustard and spices is served with it, or a tomato sauce. The main dish might be fowl, but more likely it's a flank steak, rolled and stuffed with spinach, eggs and mozzarella cheese. A salad and melon come next, then the final sweet Cannoli, a righ pastry shaped like a cornucopia and filled with a custard cream mixed with candied fruits and pistachio nuts, is the traidional finale. Burgundy is the favored wine to accompany the meal, and, of course, the table always holds a bowl of dried and fresh fruits and nuts.

    "Though the foods served by the French vary on Christmas according to proinces, some families partaking of goose, others ham, one custom common to all and followed by the French is the country is the serving of buche de noel for dessert. This is a delicious and elaborate yule log, made of cake--sometimes sponge, sometimes chocolate--and topped with a chocolate or mocha icing, garnished with green flowers. The logs, prepared in varying sizes to suit the number of guests, are sold at the Patisserie Parisienne, 474 Sixth Avnue, near Eleventh Street, and at the Four Hundred Cake Shop, 1032 First Avenue, near Ffty-seventh Street. Prices average about 25 cents a serving, or a long large enough to accomodate eight costs $2.

    "Perhaps one of the most lavish of the holiday tables is enjoyed by Scandinavians, whose smorgasbord on Christmas Eve is piled high with relishes, fish salads, head cheeses and so on. But the tradtional lutfisk is the real specialty of the occasion. It consists of a variety of fish, usually cod, that has been split down the center, cleaned, boned and put in the sun for a month or more to dry. Once the moisture is gone, the fish, looking like crinkly, stiff pieces of leather, may be kept indefinitely. Before it was sold, dealers soak it for days in a solution of lime, water and soda to reconstitute it, and when the purchaser takes it home it has blown up six times its weight when dried, is white, meaty and just like any fresh fish in appearance. This is the first Christmas in several years that lutfisk from Norway has been on hand, that sold during the war having originated in Iceland. At Nyborg & Nelson, Swedish delicatessen at 841 Third Avenue, near Fifty-first Street, both the Norwegian and Icelandic varieties are available for 40 cents a pound. The fish is boiled or baked and served with a mustard sauce. Herring salad for the repast is also sold by that store at 75 cents a pound, but it is made on order only. Julgrot, a variation of rice pudding prepared with a few almonds, winds up the feast, and legend had it that the first unmarried person to find an almond will be the next bride or bridegrrom. As a beverage, julglogg, a potent brew made with brandy, port wine, spices, nuts and raisins and served hot, accompanies the meal. On Christmas Day the dinner features a roast pig, served with a bright red apple in its mouth, or a goose.

    "Christmas Eve marks the beginning of festivities for Czechosloviakians, too, at which time the big evening meal, served on a candlelit table, features carp as the main dish. The fish is baked and overed with a well-spiced black sauce made with ginger snaps, for which each household has its own recipe. Vanocka, a rich coffee cake filled with raisins and almonds and decoratively braided, is one of the most popular of the traditional desserts. On Christmas Day, roast goose, the national dish, is served, and on the day after Christmas children go from house to house singing carols to complete the three-day celebration."
    ---"News of Food: Christmas Eve Feasts for Europeans Often Include Some Variety of Fish," New York Times, December 24, 1945 (p. 12)

    [1947]
    "As Christmas decorations were put up at the White House today, Mrs. Truman's secretaries announced the Christmas dinner menu. It was minus bread or rolls and butter, in keeping with the national food conservation program. Christmas Dinner: Tomato Consomme, Curled Celery, Assorted Olives, Roast Turkey, Chestnut Dressing, Giblet Gravy, Cranberry Jelly, Mashed Potatoes, Asparagus, Plum Pudding, Molded Ring with Fruit, Candy, Nuts, Coffee."
    ---"Simple Menu Set For White House," The New York Times, December 23, 1947 (p. 28)

    [1950]
    "Christmas Dinner.
    Consomme, Melba Toast, Celery Curls, Olives, Roast Turkey, Mushroom and Oyster Stuffing, Cranberry Relish, Sweet potato Souffle, Broccoli, Green Salad Bowl with French Dressing, Individual Plum Puddings with Brazil-nut Hard Sauce, Coffee, Milk."
    ---Culinary Arts Institute Encyclopedic Cookbook, edited by Ruth Berolzheimer [Culinary Arts Institute:Chicago] 1950 (p. 86)

    [1956]
    "Fireside Buffet
    : Holiday Glazed Ham, Parsley Potatoes, Spiced Peaches, Corn-bread Diamonds, Vegetable Scallop, Relishes: Olives, Water Cress, Watermelon Rind, Radishes, Celery Crescents, Eggnogg Pie, Coffee, Salted Nuts, Mints."
    ---Family Circle, December 1956 (p. 42)

    [1956]
    "A Dinner in Red for Christmas:
    Fruit Cocktail, Salmon Pudding, Cheese Sauce, Potato Cubes, Corn Relish in Red Pepper Cups, Radish Flowers, Roast Turkey or Roast Duck with Oyster Stuffing, Cranberry Molds, Creole Brains, Asparagus in Red Pepper Rings, Egg Rolls, Tomato Jelly with Stuffed Olives and Celery, Charlotte, Fruit Cake, Coffee, Cheese, Crackers."
    ---Mary Lyle Wilson Cookbook, Mary Lyles Wilson [Southwestern Company:Nashville TN] 1956 (p. 306)

    [1957]
    "Christmas Dinner, 1957:
    Cranberry Juice Cocktail, or Broiled Rum Flavored Grapefruit Halves, Roast Turkey, Sweet Potato or Chestnut Stuffing, Giblet Gravy or Roast Prime Ribs of Beef, Yorkshire Pudding, Browned Potatoes, Gravy, Cranberry Relish or Sauce, Celery Stuffed with Blue Cheese, Olives, Radishes, Candied CDill Pickle Slices, Strawberry Preserves, Minted Carrots, Creamed Onions or Brussels Sprouts, Jellied or Frozen Fruit Salad, or Salad of Crisp Greens and Avocado, Butterhorn or Parker House Rolls, or Brown and Serve Rolls, Eggnogg Pie, Port Wine, Coffee, Whole Nuts in a Bowl."
    ---"Your Christmas Dinner, the Best Meal of the Year," Ruth Ellen Church, Chicago Daily Tribune, December 20, 1957 (p. B3)

    [1959]
    "Duckling Dinner
    : French Onion Soup, Holiday Duckling With Orange Stuffing, Cranberry Sauce, Mushroom Wild Rice, Almond Green Beans, Gala Fruit Wreath, Parkerhouse Rolls, Butter, Assorted Cheese and Crackers, Hot Coffee."
    "Rib-Roast Splurge: Merrie Roast of Beef, Roast Potatoes, French-fried Onion Rings, Broccoli with Easy Hollandaise, Salad Apple Ring, Brown-and-serve Fantans, Candle Cake, Hot Coffee, Mugs of Milk."
    ---Better Homes & Gardens Holiday Cook Book: Special Occasions, [Meredith Press:New York] 1959 (p. 75-6)

    "If you're looking for a time-saving Christmas dinner menu, here it is. Roast turkey with favorite trimmings,...is traditional but quick to fix. It's also a suitable menu so serve buffet style which is another time-saving idea. For modern homemakers who are short on time, the turkey dinner offers a batch of quick tricks. Here they are: Buy a frozen stuffed bird. Leave it in the regfriterator todefrost for 24 hours before roasting time. Roast in slow oven , 325 degrees until done...Make gravy with condensed, canned soup and drippings. (Cream of mushroom, cream of celery or cream of chicken soup, right from the can, does wonders with turkey drippings. A few minutes of heating, a few turns of a wooden mixing spoon--and presto--creamy gravy with no lumps.) Use frozen or canned peas combined with canned white onions (the tiny ones) and buts of chopped pimento for a colorful vegetable dish that's ready in 10 minutes. Whip up the smoothest-ever mashed potatoes by using packaged, instant potatoes. Open a can of cranberry jelly and make individual salads. Serve oysters on the half shell or shrimp cocktail for a first course. Have a tray of raw relishes--olives, pickles, carrot and celery strips--ready and waiting in the refrigerator. Serve De Luxe Holiday cake for dessert made in advance."
    ---"It's Christmas--Time for Turkey," Elinor Lee, Washington Post, Times Herald, December 22, 1959 (p. C1)
    [NOTE: Recipe for De Luxe Holiday Cake & frosting are included in this article.]

    [1963]
    "Holiday Feasting:
    Baked Liver Pate and/or Shrimp Relish, Roast Turkey, Mushroom-Rice Stuffing with lots of Gravy, Stuffed Baked Sweet Potatoes, Onions Parmesan, Green Beans with Herb Sauce, Relish Bouquet: Cranberry Sauce, Olives, Celery Fans, Cranberry-Crunch, with Soft Vanilla Ice Cream or Gouda Cheese or Heavenly Honey-Walnut Pumpkin Pie or Lemon Sherbet with Minted Pineapple, Coffee, of course."
    ---Good Housekeeping Cookbook, Dorothy B. Marsh editor [Good Housekeeping:New York] 1963 (p. 69)

    [1963]
    "Christmas:
    Savory Roast Beef, Fluffy Mashed Potatoes, Braised Celery with Mushrooms, Tomato Aspic served on Green-Pepper Rings, Rolls, Mincemeat Glace, Coffee."
    ---McCall's Cook Book, [Random House:New York] 1963 (p. 716)

    [1966]
    "A Dinner for Christmas Day:
    Caviar Roulade, Standing Rib Roast, Potatoes-in-the-Shell Souffle, Cauliflower with Mustard sauce, Buttered Green Beans, Frozen Fruitcake."
    ---The New York Times Menu Cook Book, Craig Claiborne [Harper & Row:New York] 1966 (p. 51)

    [1967]
    Christmas Day Dinner, U.S. Field Artillery, Vietnam

    [1973]
    "Christmas Holiday Dinner:
    Planned for eight to ten, Hot Cheese Bacon Puffs, jellied Consomme with Red Caviar, Roast Beef, Yorkshire Pudding or Savory Roast Potatoes, Buttered Peas with Mushrooms, Cauliflower Surprise, Hearts fo Celery or Fennel, Cherry Tomatoes, Radishes and Scallions on Ice, Hot Rolls, Butter, Steamed Plum Pudding with Pudding Sauce or Glazed Lemon-Cream-Cheese Cake, Red Burgundy, Coffee."
    ---The New McCall's Cook Book, Mary Eckley [Random House:New York] 1973 (p. 574)

    [1975]
    "Christmas Dinner:
    Shrimp Cocktail, (Chilled Traminer, Riesling, or Rhine wine), Roast Goose with Sage and Onion Dressing, Braised Chestnuts, Giblet Gravy, Spicy Applesauce, Green Beans in Mustard Sauce, Molded Cranberry-Pecan Salad, Plum Pudding with Brandy or Rum Sauce, Milk, Coffee, Tea."
    ---The Doubleday Cookbook: Complete Contemporary Cooking, Jean Anderson & Elaine Hanna [Doubleday:Garden City NY] 1975 (p. 74)

    [1976]
    "Christmas Dinner:
    Oysters Rockefeller, Roast Domestic Goose, Baked Potatoes, Butter, Broccoli Casserole, Classic Waldorf Salad, Tutti-frutti Tortoni, Coffee, Tea."
    ---Better Homes and Gardens New Cookbook [Meredith Corporation:Des Moines IA] 1976 (p. 383)

    [1980]
    "Put on a Festive Buffet: Lime Daquiri Sipper, Beer-Cheese Pinecones, Turkey Pate, Salmon-Stuffed Pasta Shells, Appeteaser Pie, Punched-Pie Hot Cider. (p. 88-89)
    "Adaptable Christmas Dinner: Wild-Rice-Stuffed, Turkey with White Wine Gravy, Planked Sweet Potatoes, Vegertable Vinaigrette, Eggnog Flan Salad, Parmesan Pastry Twists, Neapolitan Mousse Pies,. White or Rose Wine." (p. 92)
    ---Better Homes and Gardens, December 1980
    [NOTE: Several microwave ovens are advertised in this issue: Magic Chef, General Electric, & Sharp.]

    [1981]
    "Christmas a la Carte: Velvety Pumpkin Bisque, Sour Creamed Cabbage Dip, Chuilled Lemony Mushrooms, Pate in Aspic, Crab Strudel, Tomato Boats, Salmon-Sole Mousse, Avocado and Shrimp in Butter Sauce, Pork Loin Chops with Prune Stuffing, Tenderlin en Croute, Chrsitmas Goose with Glazed Oranges, Chicen Legs with Rice-Sausage Stuffing, Seafood Newburg, Roast Pork with Parsley Crumb Crust, Holiday Rock Cornish Hens, Beef and Youster Pie, Beef Bourguignon with Chestnuts, Breast of Duckling with Green Peppercorns, Country Pot Roast with Winter Vegetables, Sauteed Red Cabbage, Party Potato Casserole, Jasmine Rice, Roasted Potato fans, Broccoli Puffs, Gingery Apple Rings...Crunchy Onion Twists, Cranberry-Almond Muffins, Cheese-Filled Crepes with Chocolate Sauce, Chrsitmas Wreath Cheesecake, raspberry-Strawberry Cream Cake, Holiday Pear-Peach Pie, Mixed-Nut Fruitcake...Wspresso Nut Mousse...Espresso Eggnog." (p. 149-187)
    ---Good Housekeeping December 1981

    [1982]
    "Mexican Holiday Dinner: Tortilla Soup, Turkey Mole, Christmas Salad with Lime Dressing, Sherry Rice Pudding Souffles." (p. 32)
    "Christmas Eve Supper: Alsatian Charcuterie Plate, salmon trout with red wine sauce over parsley noodles, Kirsch Ice Cream, hazelnut cookies." (p. 52)
    "Christmas Breakfast: Creamy White Cheese Tart, Bischofswein, a refreshing orange-and-brandy-based beverage, wine-galzed Alsatian Smoked Bacon, onion-caraway confit, and almond-studded Kugelhopf accompanied by Prune Butter Quetsch." (p. 55)
    "Festive Desserts: Maple Muffins with Maple Butter Glaze, Cranberry Bread Pudding, Steamed Persimmon Pudding with Lemon Hard Sauce, delicate Orange Marmalade Souffle with a special Grand Marnier Sauce." (p. 89)
    ---Bon Appetit, December 1982
    [NOTE: Advertisments for SIMAC Gelato and Pastamatic machines, Corning Microwave Cookware, Toshiba Microwave Oven with "enough leg room for an 18 lb. turkey."]

    [1983]
    "Bavarian Christmas: Goose Liver Canapes with Lingonberries, Beef Bouillon with Custard Hearts, Roast Goose with Apple and Prune Stuffing, Orange-Flavored Briased Red Cabbage, Glazed Chestnuts and Brussels Sprouts, Caraway Potato Dumplings, Almond Mocha Bavarian Cream, Rum-Flavored Chocolate Sauce." (p. 118)
    "Christmas Breakfasts: (1) Maple Pecan Wreath, Soft-Boiled Eggs, Mulled Apple Cider, Cocoa. (2) Winter Fruit Compote, Sausage and Cheese Strata, Toasted Rye Bread, Cafe au Lait." (p. 56)
    ---Gourmet, December 1983
    [NOTES: (1) James Beard's "Holiday Stuffings" article features Couscous stuffing, Red Pepper Puree, Tarragon Crumb Stuffings, Basic Bread Stuffing, Corn Bread Stuffing with Sausage and Christine Cotsibos' Greek Stuffing (Rice, Beef, and Raisin Stuffing with Chestnuts)." (p. 50, 73-74). (2) Evan Jones celebrates "A Minnesota Yuletide" featuring Snowden Pudding (p. 190). (3) Cuisinart Food Processor full color ad spreads 6 pages & includes 3 cook books using the product.)

    [1984]
    "Cook Up A Gift Idea: Honeycomb Pecans, Dill and Chive Vinegar, Onion Twist Loaves, Herbed Cheese Round, Gingerbread Men, Tropical Muffins, Cran-Apple Relish, Harvest Popcorn, Paradise Pear Jam. (p. 172-175)
    "Recipes with Centuries of Tradition: Wassail, Hot Spiced Apple Cider, Latkes, Miniature Gingerbread Men, Mrs. Willoughby's Rose-Geranium Pound Cake, Benne Seed Cookies." (p. 176-178)
    "Beverages for the Season: Hot Cranberry Punch, Syllabub." (p. 179)
    ---Southern Living, December 1984

    [1985]
    "A quiet Christmas dinner for 8: Baked Scallops in herb butter, Roast duck with prune stuffing, Red cabbage with chestnuts, Champagne sherbet."
    ---"Christmas Dinner is the perfect excuse to indulge in the finest ingedients," Anne Willan, Chicago Tribune, December 15, 1985 (p. F3)

    [1986]
    "Holiday Buffet from the Frugal Gourmet (Jeff Smith): Appetizers: Crudites with Spriited Caviar Dip, West Coast Seafood Salad, Baked Garlic, Spinach-Cheese Rolls, Salmon Mousse. Main dishes: ORzo (rice-shaped pasta), Lamb with Fennel Sausage and Eggplant, Cannelloni with Tomato Sauce, Holiday Hazelnut Salad. Desserts: Lucscious four-layer torte with tangy cranberry and orange filling, plus whipped cream, Cheesecake topped with strawberries and kiwifruit." (p. 116-117)
    "Great Cookies:Sesame Cookies, Holland Cookies, Nicholas Malgieri's Chocolatines, White Christmas Cookies, Molasses Sugar Cookies, Almond and Hazelnut Chocolate Crescents, Melting Moments, Grandma Drops, All-Purpose Gingerbread, Thousand-Dollar Tea Cookies, Grands Fours de Noel, Refrigerator Christmas Wreaths, Pecan Diamonds, Anise Drops, Magdelenas Castellamas French Gingersnaps, Les Biarritz." (p. 124-136) ---Ladies' Home Journal, December 1986

    [1987]
    "Christmas Buffet: Braised Stuffed Flank Steak, Cold Gingered Loin of Pork, Mulled Cranberries in Red Wine, Broiled and Wilted Spinach Slaw with Goat Cheese, Cajun Carrot and Turnip Escabeche, Tomato Broccoli, Scalloed Potatoes with Red and Freen Peppers, Nutty Chocolate Strudel, Tangerine Mousse." (p. 81)
    "Share a Fireside Dinner (Christmas Eve): Rosy Punch, Savory Stuffed Mushrooms, Hot Cheddar Puffs, Caviar Dip with Crudites, Shrimp in Cilantro Sauce, Tricolor Pizza, Macadamia-Pear Tart." (p. 83)
    "When Friends Drop In: Peppery Cheese Twists, Pesto Bread, Smoked Turkey Medley, Tangy Cheese Ball, Picadillo Bread, Zippy Tuna Dip, Two-Tone Caviar Mousse." (p. 84)
    ---Family Circle, December 14, 1987
    [NOTE: Holiday gift ideas from West Bend promote high performance food processor, electric wok, Oven Up toaster-oven-broiler, electric food chopper, electric skillet, Stir Crazy corn popper and automatic slow cooker (unpaged advertisement inserted between pages 40 & 41.)]

    [1988]
    "Big Sky [Montana] Brunch for 16: Hot Ranch Egg Salad, Pan-Browned Venison Sausages, Orange-Honey Butter, Assorted Breads: Brown BRead, Muffins, Sesame Sticks, Nut Bread, Sourdough Niscuits, Sunshine Punch, Cowboy Coffee." (p. 78)
    "La Jolla Holiday Barbecue Buffet: Oysters with Tomatillo Salsa, Tortilla Chips, Jicama Sticks, Grilled Turkey Drumsticks, Breast, and Banana Sqash with Cranberry Salsa, Skewered Sasuage, Onions, and Potatoes with Msutard Cream, Mixed Skewered Vegetables, Christmas Cookies, Tangerines, Mulled Cider, Sparking Water." (p. 80)
    ---Sunset (Mountain edition), December 1988

    [1989]
    "Cuisine Courante: A Southern Tree-Trimming Party: Lobster, Oyster, and Sausage Gumbo, Rice with Red Beans and Peas, Fried Cornmeal-Coated Okra, Southern Coffee parfaits, Praline Butter Cookies." (p. 132)
    "Gourmet's Menus, Christmas Dinner: Warm Shrimp and Scallop Salad with Roasted Red Pepper Vinaigrette, Roast Goose with Sausage, Fennel, and Currant Stuffing and Wild Mushroom Port Gravy, Sauteed Potatoes and Celery Root, Brussels Sprouts and Carrots with Shallot Butter, Black Forest Cake, Eggnog Ice Cream." (p. 160)
    ---Gourmet, December 1989
    [NOTE: Issue includes advertisiments for Black & Decker: Spacemaker Toast-R-Oven & Can Opener, Super Chopper, Handy Shortcut Micro-Processor, Handy Pop'n Serve Corn Popper, HandyBlender II, Cup-at-a-Time Drip Coffeemaker, HandyMixer Cordless Beater & Cool-Touch Wide-Slot Toaster. (p. 149-156)]

    [1990]
    "Enjoy a night-before feast: Cornish Hens with Savory Stuffing, Sweet Red Pepper Puree in Pepper Boats, Sweet and White Potato Puree, Broccoli with Walnut Butter, Vegetable Consomme, Paris Brest with sun-caramel halo."(p. 113)
    "Make heavenly delights: A[pricot Diamonds, Swedish Ginger Cutouts, Linzer Jewels, Orange Star Stack-Ups." (p. 114)
    ---Family Circle, December 18, 1990
    [NOTE: Advertisements for Microwave Pressure Cooker, Burton Stove-Top Grill, Corning Visions Cookware, Mirro AirBake Insulate Bakeware.]

    [1991]
    "For Americans wondering how to send goodies to US servicemembers, there are some very important 'don'ts' says Susan Templin, manager of the United States Department of Agriculture's Meat and Poultyr Hotline. Don't send anything made with pork products or alcohol because of Saudi government restrictions. Don't send anything perishable. Packages take 14 to 20 days to get to Saudi Arabia...Consider items that can withstand the delay, high temperatures, and rough handling...Ms. Templin suggests store-bought cookies; cakes and breads that come in tins or cans; jarred or canned nuts, pretzels, popcorn; beef jerky; dried fruit; hard candy; presweetened drink mixes (sugar-sweetened fare better than artificially sweetened mixes)...Homemade goods should be addressed to a specific servicemenber or unit. Nestle Foods Corporation is one company offereing 'desert-safe' recipes...Hershey Foods Corporation has come out with the coveted 'Desert Bar.' It was developed in response to the Army's request for a heat-resistant chocolate bar made with real milk chocolate. Some 144,000 bars were shipped to Saudi Arabia. The 'Desert Bar' replaces the old 'Tropical Chocolate' bar...It has been tested at 120 degrees F. for 14 weeks. As far as morale enhancers go, perhaps nothing can top the troops' Christmas dinner: real turkey, gravy, shrimp, cranberry sauce, cornbread, instant potatoes, nuts, sweet potatoes, fruit cake. Total cost: $3.1 million."
    ---"Food: Melts in Your Mouth...not in the sand," Kirsten A. Conover, Christian Science Monitor, January 3, 1991 (p. 14)

    [1992]
    "Holiday Brunch: Cran-Berry Cocktail, Eggnog French Toast, Bazked Ham Slices, Fresh Strawberries, Coffee." (p. 238)
    ---Good Housekeeping, December 1992

    [1993]
    "Holiday Cookies: Spice cookies, strawberry tart cookies, snowflake cookies, mocha pecan balls, chocolate-dipped hazelnut shortbread wedges, coconut bars, walnut cups, Spritz Christmas wreath cookies, fruit cookies." (p. 130)
    "Casual Christmastime Dinner: Prosciutto-Wrapped Breadsticks with Fig, Cucumber Tapenade Canapes, Baked Polenta with Shittake Gagout, Arugula Radichio and Endive Salad, Cranberry Sweril ice-Cream cake." (p. 151)
    "Christmas Dinner: Oxtail Bouillon with Parmesan Puffs, Oxtail Pate, Roasted Rack of Venison and Shallots with Dried-Cranberry Gravy, Brown-and-Wild-Rice Pilaf with Porcini and Parsley, Puree of Three Root Vegetablesj, Mixed Greens, With Hibet Vinaigrette and Gorgonzola, Chocolate Linzertorte." (p. 172)
    ---Gourmet, December 1993)
    [NOTE: Advertisements for Calphon cookware, Healthy Choice Fat Free Cheeses, 2nd Avenue Deli by Mail, Micro-beer of the Month Club.]

    [1994]
    "A Joyful Feast: Garlic-studded roast pork loin with fragrant sprigs of fresh rosemary, Filet of beef with cheesy potatoes and baby carrots, Thyme-scented chicken roaster with ripe figs, Festive red-and-green Christmas Salad." (p. 108-109)
    ---Family Circle, December 20, 1994

    [1995]
    "Come for Christmas: Mushroom-Bacon Bundles, Chinese Firecrackers, Spinach California Rolls, Smoked Turkey and Lettuce Packets, Zesty Beef Wrap-Ups, Herb Popovers, Christmas Goose, Stuffed Potatoes with Buttermilk and Bacon, Roasted Beet and Orange Salad, Parsnip Puree, Wild Rice Orzo and Mushrooms, Standing Rib Roast with Onion Gravy, Creamed Roasted Baby Onions with Peas, Brussels Sprouts with Msutard Seeds, Carrot Puree, Turnip Puree with Fried Onions, Roast Fresh Ham, Chritmas Ice Ceran Bombe, Holly Wreth Cake, Linzer Cookies." (p.107-112)
    "Holiday Poke Cake." (p, 155, Jell-O & Cool Whip advertisement.)
    ---Woman's Day, December 19, 1995

    [1996]
    "Christmas Dinner: Dilled Shrimp with Cucumber Ribbons, Spinach-Mushroom Stuffed Tenterloin, Oven-roasted Parsnips & Carrots, Wild Rice Pilaf with Dried Cranberries, Winter Salad with Ripe Pears & Toasted Pecans, Brandied Buche de Noele with Meringue Mushrooms, Double-Berry Linzer Tart." (p. 181-182)
    ---Good Housekeeping, December 1996

    [1997]
    "New Mexico Christmas, Open House Buffet: Sesame-Nut Crunch, Salsas Dips and Tortilla Chips, Christmas Posole, Black Bean Soup with Hot-Sauce Bar, Hickory-smoked Turkey, Apricot Cherry and Green Chili Chutney, Assorted Mustards and Mayonnaise, Sandwich Breads and Rolls, Tiny Chili and Corn Muffins, Steamed Tamales, Extra-Spicy Gingersnaps, Bizcochitos, House-Gift Desserts, Self-Serve Beverage Bar, Chimayo Punch, Mexican Hot Chocolate." (p. 81)
    "Native American Christams Feast: Potawatomi Popcorn, Chenin Blanc, Field Greens with Sage-Pinon Vinaigrette, Crusted Tenderloin with Chipotle Onions, Oven-roasted Roots, Quinoa wasn Wild Rice Stuffed Squash, Mushroom and Sunchoke Saute, Cabernet Sauvignon, Simply A'Maize'ing Corn Ice Cream, Chocolate Sorbet, Raspberry Sauce, Sparking Wine." (p. 88)
    ---Sunset (Mountain Edition), December 1997

    [1998]
    "A Taste of Chrismas Past: Crab Cakes and Baby Greens with Lemon Vinaigrette, Champagne, Crown Roast of Pork with Apple and Pork Stuffing and Cider Gravy, Butternut Squash and Rutabaga Puree, Sweet-and-Sour Red Cabbage, hard Cider or Pinot Noir, Chocolate-Orange Buche de Noel." (p. 118)
    "Salmon and Spinach Terrine with Cucumber-Dill Sauce, Champagne, Roast Turkey with Bourbon Gravy, Corn Bread Succotash Stuffing, Maple-Glazed yams with Pecan Topping, Brussels Sprouts with Bacon, Cranberry-Kumquat Chutney, Zinfandel, Syrah or Chardonnay, Warm Pear Shortcakes with Brandied Cream." (p. 120)
    "Season's Best Cookies: Christmas Tree Shortbread, Spiced Snowflakes, Coconut-Macadamia Crescents, Fudgy Hazelnut Brownies with Marbled Chocolate Glaze." (p. 133)
    "Christmas Breakfast: Double-Salmon and Sweet Potato Hash with Poached Eggs, Cranberry-Studded Creme Fraiche Scones, Ginger Butter, Apple-Fig Crisp." (p. 139)
    ---Bon Appetit, December 1998
    [NOTE: Advertisements for Analon Professional Cookware, Wearever Air baking pans, Cuisinart non-stick cookware, Panasonic National (steamer & rice cooker), Salton 1,2,3 'Spresso (esresso machine).]

    [1999]
    "Dessert of the Month: Fig Holiday Roll." (p. 79)
    "Twelve Days of Christmas: Buttered Carrots, Roast Poussin with Prunes and Thyme, Caramelized Onion Tartlets, Pate Brisee, Rice Pilaf with Herbes de Provence, Toasted Almonds and Driec Pears, Seven Swans A-Swimming, Cooked Custard Eggnog, Spicy Pecans, Ramos Gin Fizz, Gingerbread Cupcakes with Butter or Chocolate Glaze, Meringue Buttercream, Oatmeal Cookies." (p. 272-282)
    . ---Martha Stewart Living, December 1999-January 2000
    [NOTE: Advertisiments for Cooking.com (cookware, recipes, advice), Marthastewart.com, AskJeeves.com, FoodTV.com]

    History of selected Christmas foods.


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    Research conducted by Lynne Olver, editor The Food Timeline. About this site.


    http://www.foodtimeline.org/christmasmenu.html
    © Lynne Olver 2004
    12 December 2014